Lecture 7: The Functions of Play - The 'why' of Adaptive Value
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Lecture 7: The Functions of Play - The 'why' of Adaptive Value

Explore the concept of function in relation to structure, with examples like the long neck of giraffes. Learn about how structures evolve over time to better suit their functions, as explained by the mechanism of natural selection by Darwin and Wallace.

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@BountifulPeridot

Questions and Answers

What is the main driving force of evolution according to Darwin and Wallace?

Natural selection

How does natural selection operate?

By differential success of individuals with heritable traits

What can natural selection lead to over many generations?

Speciation

Why is it mentioned that natural selection does not involve conscious decision-making?

<p>To contrast it with artificial selection</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT one of the key components of natural selection?

<p>Genetic Drift</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of variation in natural selection?

<p>To increase chances of survival for some individuals</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of selective pressures in an environment?

<p>To make organisms better adapted</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which type of natural selection are individuals with extreme phenotypes at both ends of a trait distribution favored?

<p>Disruptive Selection</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens to the frequency of a favored trait in directional selection?

<p>Shifts in one direction over time</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the outcome of stabilizing selection on a population?

<p>Population becomes more homogeneous in terms of a trait</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main idea behind incremental change as discussed in the text?

<p>To outcompete neighbors through appearance</p> Signup and view all the answers

How is hereditary information transferred according to Pangenesis theory?

<p>Through 'pangenes' or 'gemmules' from reproductive organs to various parts of the body</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did many biologists at the time reject as the mechanism for evolutionary change?

<p>Pangenesis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Gregor Mendel discover about traits through his plant breeding experiments?

<p>Traits can be dominant or recessive</p> Signup and view all the answers

How did Mendel account for the appearance and disappearance of traits in his experiments?

<p>By hypothesizing the existence of genes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What concept combines Darwin's Natural Selection with Mendel's Genes?

<p>The Modern Synthesis</p> Signup and view all the answers

How is evolution by natural selection conceptualized in terms of changes in a population?

<p>Changes in allele frequencies</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Tinbergen’s Hypothesis' addresses which adaptation related to black-headed gulls and their nesting behavior?

<p>Egg-shell removal by crows</p> Signup and view all the answers

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