LESSON 28 cortas Langerhans Cells and Antigen Presentation Quiz

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Describe the composition of the integumentary system and its related structures.

The integumentary system is composed of the skin (epidermis, dermis, hypodermis), skin appendages (glands, hair follicles, and hairs), and related structures such as hooves, horns, claws, nails, comb, and beards.

What are the main components of the skin and their respective tissue types?

The skin is made up of three layers: the epidermis (an epithelial tissue), the dermis (a connective tissue), and the hypodermis (subcutaneous tissue, which is a loose connective tissue and adipose tissue).

How does the thickness of the skin vary in different body areas?

The thickness of the skin decreases dorso-ventrally and cranio-caudally. The areas with the greatest skin thickness are the forehead and the dorsal area of the neck, the thorax and the hip, and the thinnest are the ear pinna and the axillary, inguinal, and perianal areas.

What covers almost the entire skin surface of domestic animals?

Almost the entire skin surface of domestic animals is covered by hair, wool, or feathers.

Describe the structure and function of Langerhans cells in the epidermis.

Langerhans cells in the epidermis phagocytose antigens and travel to regional lymph nodes to present antigens to specific lymphocytes, stimulating the immune response.

What are Merkel cells and where are they located?

Merkel cells are neuroendocrine cells located in specific regions like whiskers, tactile hairs, footpads, and oral mucosa, connected to nerve fibers, forming Merkel cell-neurite complexes.

Explain the composition and characteristics of the dermis.

The dermis is fibrous connective tissue with a network of collagen and elastic fibers, divided into papillary and reticular layers.

What is the hypodermis composed of and what is its function?

The hypodermis is composed of fibrous connective tissue with adipose tissue (fibroadipose tissue) and functions as a layer of insulation and energy storage.

Describe the structure and function of sebaceous glands.

Sebaceous glands are exocrine glands that produce sebum in a holocrine secretion and discharge it to the hair follicle, with two types of cells: basal and secretory.

Differentiate between apocrine and eccrine sweat glands and provide examples of animals in which they are abundant.

Apocrine sweat glands are coiled tubular glands with serous secretion and cooling function, abundant in canids and equids. Eccrine sweat glands are tubular glands with merocrine secretion and are found in various body parts.

What are hepatoid glands and where are they located in canids?

Hepatoid glands are exocrine glands located around the anus, in the perineum, and in the buttock of the tail of canids, with lumen-free secretory units, and have a tendency to neoplastic transformation in males.

Explain the structure and function of the mammary gland.

The mammary gland is a modified exocrine cutaneous sweat gland that produces milk in an apocrine form, with secretory units and ducts of columnar to cuboidal epithelium.

Describe the structure of a hair follicle and its composition.

The hair follicle is a tubular invagination of the epidermis and basement membrane into the dermis, covered by the epidermis, with a structure composed of layers such as the basement membrane, external and internal root sheaths, and hair shaft.

Study Notes

  • Langerhans cells in the epidermis phagocytose antigens, travel to regional lymph nodes to present antigens to specific lymphocytes, stimulating the immune response.
  • Merkel cells: neuroendocrine cells located in specific regions like whiskers, tactile hairs, footpads, and oral mucosa, connected to nerve fibers, forming Merkel cell-neurite complexes.
  • Skin structure:
    • Dermis: fibrous connective tissue with a network of collagen and elastic fibers, divided into papillary and reticular layers.
    • Hypodermis: fibrous connective tissue with adipose tissue (fibroadipose tissue).
  • Skin appendages:
    • Sebaceous glands: exocrine glands that produce sebum in a holocrine secretion and discharge it to the hair follicle, with two types of cells: basal and secretory.
    • Sweat glands: of two types, apocrine (coiled tubular glands with serous secretion and cooling function, abundant in canids and equids) and eccrine (tubular glands with merocrine secretion and found in various body parts).
    • Hepatoid glands: exocrine glands located around the anus, in the perineum, and in the buttock of the tail of canids, with lumen-free secretory units, and have a tendency to neoplastic transformation in males.
    • Mammary gland: a modified exocrine cutaneous sweat gland that produces milk in an apocrine form, with secretory units and ducts of columnar to cuboidal epithelium.
    • Hair follicle and hair: tubular invagination of the epidermis and basement membrane into the dermis, covered by the epidermis, with a structure composed of layers such as the basement membrane, external and internal root sheaths, and hair shaft.

Test your knowledge of Langerhans cells, antigen phagocytosis, and the immune response in this quiz. Learn about how Langerhans cells present antigens to specific lymphocytes and mediate the immune response.

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