## 64 Questions

What is the purpose of dividing a population into strata in stratified random sampling?

To ensure that the sample is representative of the population

What type of sampling technique is used when the researcher selects 'units' based on ease of obtaining them?

Convenience Sampling

What is the main characteristic of probability sampling?

Random selection of samples

What is the advantage of using multi-stage sampling?

Reduces the cost of sampling

What is the main limitation of non-probability sampling?

All of the above

What type of sampling is used when the population is divided into smaller groups or strata?

Stratified Random Sampling

What is the purpose of quota sampling?

To achieve a predetermined proportion of respondents

What is the main difference between probability and non-probability sampling?

Probability sampling uses random selection

What is the main characteristic of probability sampling?

Each sampling unit has the same probability of being selected

Which type of sampling is also known as 'strict random sampling'?

Probability sampling

What is the primary advantage of simple random sampling?

Each unit in the population has an equal chance of being selected

Which type of sampling is used when the population is divided into subgroups?

Stratified random sampling

What is the main difference between probability and non-probability sampling?

Each unit in the population has an equal chance of being selected in probability sampling

Which type of non-probability sampling involves selecting a sample based on the judgment of the researcher?

Judgment sampling

What is the purpose of quota sampling?

To select a sample that is representative of the population

What is the primary disadvantage of simple random sampling?

It may not provide a representative sample

What is a characteristic of judgment sampling method?

Subjectivity in the selection process

What is a disadvantage of quota sampling?

The samples do not possess the characteristic of random samples

What type of sampling method involves selecting a few participants who then suggest others?

Snowball sampling

What is a characteristic of volunteer sampling?

Use of volunteers who are willing to participate

What is a type of non-probability sampling?

Judgment Sampling

What is an advantage of quota sampling?

It is a convenient and relatively inexpensive method

What is the main difference between snowball sampling and quota sampling?

Snowball sampling involves selecting a few participants who then suggest others, while quota sampling involves selecting participants based on certain criteria

What is a main limitation of judgment sampling?

Certain members of the population may have a smaller or no chance of selection

What is the primary purpose of dividing a population into smaller groups or strata in stratified random sampling?

To group similar characteristics together

Which type of non-probability sampling involves selecting participants based on the judgment of the researcher?

Judgment sampling

What is a characteristic of multi-stage sampling?

Dividing the population into smaller groups and selecting samples from each

What is the main advantage of convenience sampling?

Easy availability of participants

Which type of sampling technique involves dividing the population into smaller groups and selecting samples from each?

Multi-stage sampling

What is a characteristic of non-probability sampling?

The sample is selected based on the researcher's judgment

What is the primary purpose of stratified random sampling?

To group similar characteristics together

Which type of sampling involves selecting participants because they happen to be in the right place at the right time?

Convenience sampling

What is the main purpose of dividing a population into strata in stratified sampling?

To reduce cost and improve efficiency

What type of sampling involves selecting a few participants who then suggest others?

Snowball sampling

What is a characteristic of judgment sampling method?

Selection based on the judgment of the researcher

What is an advantage of quota sampling?

Reduces cost and improves efficiency

What type of sampling is used when the population is divided into smaller groups or strata?

Stratified sampling

What is a main limitation of non-probability sampling?

Biased sample

What is the primary advantage of simple random sampling?

Ensures a representative sample

What type of sampling involves selecting participants based on ease of obtaining them?

Convenience sampling

What is the primary advantage of simple random sampling in a homogeneous population?

Known and equal chance of selection

What is the primary characteristic of non-probability sampling?

The researcher has control over the sample selection

Which type of non-probability sampling involves selecting a sample based on the ease of obtaining them?

Convenience sampling

What is the primary purpose of dividing a population into smaller groups in stratified random sampling?

To ensure equal representation of subgroups

What type of sampling is used when the population is divided into smaller groups or strata?

Stratified random sampling

Which type of sampling involves selecting a sample based on the judgment of the researcher?

Judgment sampling

What is the primary characteristic of multi-stage sampling?

Involves multiple stages of sampling

What is the primary advantage of quota sampling?

Is a quick and cost-effective method

What is the primary goal of dividing a population into homogeneous groups in cluster sampling?

To ensure the sample is representative of the population

What is the main advantage of using stratified sampling over other probability sampling methods?

It is easier to implement in practical situations

What is the main difference between multi-stage sampling and stratified sampling?

Multi-stage sampling involves dividing the population into subgroups based on similarity, while stratified sampling involves dividing the population into homogeneous groups

What is the main disadvantage of cluster sampling?

The more homogeneous the cluster chosen, the more imprecise the sample results

What is the main characteristic of convenience sampling?

It is a type of non-probability sampling

What is the main characteristic of judgment sampling?

It involves selecting a sample based on the judgment of the researcher

What is the main advantage of using multi-stage sampling?

It facilitates information from various areas and groups

What is the main difference between cluster sampling and stratified sampling?

Cluster sampling involves dividing the population into subgroups based on similarity, while stratified sampling involves dividing the population into homogeneous groups

What is a major limitation of judgment sampling?

Subjectivity enters in the selection process

What is the main characteristic of quota sampling?

The interviewer has discretion in selecting the sample

Which type of sampling involves selecting a few participants who then suggest others?

Network/Snowball sampling

What is a characteristic of convenience sampling?

It involves selecting participants based on ease of obtaining them

What is the main difference between probability and non-probability sampling?

Probability sampling ensures representativeness, non-probability sampling does not

What is a type of non-probability sampling that relies on the researcher's judgment?

Judgment sampling

What is an advantage of quota sampling?

It is less expensive

What is a characteristic of volunteer sampling?

It uses volunteers who participate in the research

## Study Notes

### Non-Probability Sampling Techniques

- Judgment Sampling Method: requires a judgment or an "educated guess" on the part of the interviewer as to who should represent the population, which can lead to subjectivity and certain members having a smaller or no chance of selection.
- Volunteer Sampling: researcher uses only people who volunteer to participate in the research.
- Quota Sampling Methods: interviewers are given quotas to be filled from different strata, with some restrictions on how they are to be filled, but the samples do not possess the characteristic of random samples.
- Network/Snowball Sampling: researcher selects a few participants, who then suggest others who may be willing to participate.
- Snowball/Referral Sampling: an initial group of respondents is selected, usually at random, and then asked to identify others who belong to the target population of interest.

### Probability Sampling Techniques

- Each sampling unit has the same probability of being selected, and the law of chance alone decides which individual unit in the "parent" population will be selected.
- Simple Random Sampling: each and every unit of the population has an equal chance of being selected, and the probability of being selected is "known and equal" for all members of the population.
- Methods of Simple Random Sampling: Blind Draw Method, Random Numbers Method, and Lottery Method.

### Advantages of Simple Random Sampling

- Known and equal chance of selection
- Easy method when there is an electronic database
- No technical knowledge required
- Basic listening and recording skills are sufficient
- Can be used for large scale surveys

### Multi-Stage Random Sampling

- Sampling procedures carried out in several stages using random sampling techniques
- Applicable for large scale surveys
- Involves dividing the population into smaller units, such as states, cities, urban and rural areas, and then selecting a random sample from each unit.

### Non-Probability Sampling

- Convenience Sampling: researcher selects "units" to be included based on ease of obtaining them or simple availability.
- Convenience Sampling Method: samples drawn at the convenience of the interviewer, often selecting respondents who happen to be in the right place at the right time.

### Stratified Sampling

- Divides the population into homogeneous groups or strata based on characteristics such as age, socioeconomic divisions, nationality, religion, and educational achievements.
- Random or systematic samples of predetermined size are obtained from each group (stratum) to make the sample more representative.

### Cluster Sampling

- Divides the population into groups (clusters), and a random sample of clusters is selected based on a probability sampling technique.
- Either all elements are included in the sample (one-stage) or a sample of elements is drawn probabilistically (two-stage).
- Advantages: consumes less time and cost, ease of implementation, and does not require a list of all members of the universe.
- Disadvantage: cluster specification error, which increases if the clusters are not homogeneous.

### Multi-Stage Sampling

- Combination of one or more methods described above.
- Population is divided into multiple clusters, and then these clusters are further divided and grouped into various subgroups (strata) based on similarity.
- One or more clusters can be randomly selected from each stratum, and this process continues until the cluster can’t be divided anymore.

### Non-Probability Sampling

- Convenience Sampling: researcher selects units based on ease of obtaining them or simple availability.
- Disadvantages: small loss in sampling precision and potential “periodicity” problems.

### Probability Sampling

- Each sampling unit has an equal probability of being selected based on the law of chance.
- Methods include simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling, cluster random sampling, and multi-stage sampling.

### Simple Random Sampling

- Each unit of the population has an equal chance of being selected.
- Methods include blind draw, random numbers method, and lottery method.
- Advantages: known and equal chance of selection, easy method when there is an electronic database, and no technical knowledge required.

### Judgment Sampling Method

- Samples that require a judgment or an “educated guess” on the part of the interviewer as to who should represent the population.
- Disadvantages: subjectivity enters in, and certain members of the population will have a smaller or no chance of selection compared to others.

### Volunteer Sampling

- Researcher uses only people who volunteer to participate in the research.

### Quota Sampling Methods

- Interviewers are given quotas to be filled from different strata, with some restrictions on how they are to be filled.
- Disadvantages: samples do not possess the characteristic of random samples.

### Network/Snowball Sampling

- Researcher selects a few participants, who then suggest others who may be willing to participate.

Learn about judgment sampling method, a technique used to select samples that require a judgment or an educated guess on the part of the interviewer. This method involves asking informed individuals to suggest who should be in the sample.

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