Muscle Physiology
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Muscle Physiology

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Questions and Answers

What is the primary function of skeletal muscle?

Pull bones for movement

Which of the following is a characteristic of skeletal muscle?

Striated appearance under the microscope

Why do you need antagonistic muscle pairs for certain movements?

To perform opposite actions effectively

What is the role of tendons in skeletal muscle structure?

<p>Attach muscle to bone</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is skeletal muscle considered voluntary?

<p>It can be consciously controlled by the individual</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the brain is responsible for regulating voluntary control of skeletal muscle?

<p>Primary motor cortex</p> Signup and view all the answers

What neurotransmitter is used by lower somatic motor neurons to communicate with skeletal muscle cells?

<p>Acetylcholine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which brain structure influences learned reflexes and reflexive movements in skeletal muscle regulation?

<p>Cerebellum</p> Signup and view all the answers

Involuntary regulation of skeletal muscle can involve which type of neurons?

<p>Sensory neurons</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure is important for inhibitory responses in skeletal muscle regulation?

<p>Basal nuclei</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of reflex involves sensory neurons responding to muscle spindle apparatus stretching?

<p>Stretch reflex</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which group of neurons decussate in the medulla oblongata to control the opposite side of the body when regulating voluntary movement?

<p>Upper motor neurons</p> Signup and view all the answers

Skeletal muscle can be regulated by both lower and upper somatic motor neurons.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Reflexes such as stretch reflexes always involve voluntary muscle contractions.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

The cerebellum plays a role in controlling innate involuntary reflexes like the knee-jerk reflex.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

The basal nuclei are primarily responsible for activating skeletal muscle responses.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Voluntary control of skeletal muscle is independent of sensory input from the peripheral nervous system.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Involuntary regulation of skeletal muscle never involves sensory neurons.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Axons from lower somatic motor neurons release acetylcholine to communicate with skeletal muscle cells.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the T tubules in muscle cells?

<p>Carry action potentials deep into the cell</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of regulatory proteins like tropomyosin and troponin in muscle contraction?

<p>Regulate the binding of myosin to actin in response to calcium binding</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of sarcomeres in muscle function?

<p>They are the sites where actin and myosin filaments slide past each other</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why do muscle fibers contain multiple nuclei?

<p>Due to fusion of separate cells during development</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the sarcolemma in muscle cells?

<p>Facilitate communication with motor neurons</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do actin and myosin filaments contribute to muscle contraction?

<p>They slide past each other without shortening</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure is specialized for storing calcium in muscle cells?

<p>Sarcoplasmic reticulum</p> Signup and view all the answers

Muscle fibers are composed of bundles of myofibrils, which are responsible for muscle contraction.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

The sarcolemma of a muscle cell contains structures like the motor end plate for communication with smooth muscle cells.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

The fusion of separate cells during development results in muscle fibers having a single nucleus each.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

The sliding of actin and myosin filaments past each other during muscle contraction leads to the lengthening of sarcomeres.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Tropomyosin and troponin are regulatory proteins in muscle contraction that respond to sodium binding.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Sarcomeres, the smallest units of contraction, are not crucial for muscle function.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

The sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle cells is specialized for storing potassium instead of calcium.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of acetylcholinesterase in muscle contraction?

<p>Breaking down acetylcholine to allow relaxation by terminating stimulation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of calcium in muscle contraction?

<p>Shifting tropomyosin to expose the actin binding site for myosin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which process requires the breakdown of ATP during muscle contraction?

<p>Formation of the cross bridge between myosin and actin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What causes depolarization of the sarcolemma during excitation-contraction coupling?

<p>Traveling of action potential down the T-tubules</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which protein is responsible for shifting tropomyosin to allow myosin binding with actin?

<p>Troponin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of T-tubules in muscle contraction?

<p>Allowing action potentials to reach deep into the muscle fibers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is ATP considered crucial for muscle contraction and relaxation processes?

<p>To power myosin movement, break cross bridges, and pump calcium back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum</p> Signup and view all the answers

Muscle contraction strength can be influenced by muscle fiber thickness, initial muscle fiber length, and the number of motor units activated.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

Muscle contraction strength is solely determined by the weight being lifted during graded contractions.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Recruitment involves activating fewer and smaller motor units to achieve a stronger muscle contraction.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Resistance training can increase muscle fiber strength by producing more myosin and actin filaments within muscle fibers.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

The length-tension relationship in muscle fibers refers to the ideal resting length with minimal overlap between actin and myosin for maximum strength.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Antagonistic muscle contractions occur when a heavy object causes a muscle to shorten.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary factor influencing muscle contraction strength?

<p>Number of motor units activated</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of recruitment in muscle contractions?

<p>Activating more and larger motor units</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which component of resistance training increases muscle fiber strength?

<p>Producing more actin filaments</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the length-tension relationship in muscle fibers refer to?

<p>Optimal resting length for maximal contraction strength</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do motor units influence muscle strength?

<p>By activating more and larger units when needed</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key characteristic of fast glycolytic muscle fibers?

<p>Reliance on anaerobic respiration</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of athletes would benefit the most from fast glycolytic muscle fibers?

<p>Sprinters</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary outcome of endurance activities on muscle tissue?

<p>More mitochondria in muscles</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why does atrophy occur in muscles?

<p>Lack of exercise</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does resistance training primarily affect muscle size?

<p>Through muscle hypertrophy</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor leads to an increase in blood vessels in muscles?

<p>Endurance activities</p> Signup and view all the answers

What role do satellite cells play in muscle repair and regeneration?

<p>Dividing rapidly to form new muscle fibers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Slow oxidative fibers contain fewer mitochondria compared to fast glycolytic fibers.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Endurance athletes like weightlifters benefit more from fast glycolytic fibers.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Resistance training leads to more muscle hypertrophy than endurance activities.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

Muscle hypertrophy involves an increase in the number of muscle fibers.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Exercising can improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of type 1 diabetes.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Healthy muscle fibers can divide to repair muscle damage.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Atrophy can occur due to consistent physical activity throughout life.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Endurance activities primarily strengthen skeletal muscle by increasing muscle size.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which type of muscle are cells interconnected by gap junctions for coordination?

<p>Cardiac muscle</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of muscle has built-in tone and pacesetter cells?

<p>Smooth muscle</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of muscle requires external stimulation from somatic motor neurons?

<p>Skeletal muscle</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of muscle is found in hollow internal organs?

<p>Smooth muscle</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of muscle is characterized by being both striated and involuntary?

<p>Cardiac muscle</p> Signup and view all the answers

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