Introduction to Developmental Biology: Chapter 1

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30 Questions

What is the primary focus of embryology?

The study of animal development from fertilization to hatching or birth

What is the term for the process of continuous change that generates a complex multicellular organism from a single cell?

Development

Which type of development is characterized by eggs being ejected by the mother, and young hatching from them?

Oviparity

What is the term for the cell division pattern in which the entire egg is divided into smaller cells?

Holoblastic cleavage

What is the characteristic of development that continues into senescence?

It is a progressive and continuous change

Who is credited with identifying the two major cell division patterns by which embryos are formed?

Aristotle

What is the primary consideration in choosing a model system for studying embryonic development?

Organism size and generation time

During which stage of embryogenesis does the mass of the embryo increase?

None of the above

What is the result of the process of gastrulation in embryonic development?

Formation of the three germ layers

Which of the following organisms is NOT a common model system used to study embryonic development?

Sea slug (Aplysia californica)

What is the term for the fusion of male and female gametes followed by the fusion of the haploid gamete nuclei to restore the full complement of chromosomes?

Fertilization

What is the term for the stages of development between fertilization and hatching (or birth)?

Embryogenesis

What is the primary characteristic of indeterminate growth in plants?

Growth that continues indefinitely

What is the term for the process of an insect larva transforming into a sexually mature adult?

Metamorphosis

During which stage of development do the three basic cell layers of an embryo form, but do not rearrange through gastrulation-like movements?

Embryogenesis

What is the function of fertilization in a frog's life cycle?

To accomplish genetic recombination and reproduction

What is the term for the diploid growth stage in the alternating life cycle of plants and algae?

Sporophytic

What is the invagination point where gastrulation begins in an embryonic development?

Blastopore

What are the three distinctive tissue types that become segregated in the embryo during embryogenesis?

Dermal, ground, and vascular

What is the primary axis of the embryo set up by during embryogenesis?

Primary apical-basal axis

What is the phase of development characterized by the rapid division of cells without an increase in cytoplasmic volume?

Cleavage

What is the species of weed that has a relatively small genome that has been sequenced and annotated?

Arabidopsis thaliana

What is the term for the phase of development during which the neural tube is forming?

Neurulation

What is the source of nutrient supply for the embryo during seed maturation?

Surrounding endosperm

What is the primary function of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in developmental research?

To label cells and facilitate identification

According to Karl Ernst von Baer's laws of embryology, what is the characteristic of the phylotypic stage?

It is a relatively invariant stage that constrains evolution

What was the conclusion drawn by Darwin in On the Origin of Species regarding embryonic structure?

Community of embryonic structure reveals community of descent

What is the term for an embryo made from tissues of more than one genetic source?

Chimeric embryo

What was the significance of J.V. Thompson's discovery about larval barnacles and shrimp?

It demonstrated the similarity of larval forms across different phyla

What is the term for the introduction of exogenous DNA or a gene into a cell's genome through experimental manipulation?

Transgenesis

Explore the fascinating world of developmental biology, from the formation of a complex organism from a single cell to the study of animal development. Learn about the process of development, embryogenesis, and more!

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