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Pest Control

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42 Questions

What is the primary reason for pest management?

To maintain a clean and disease-free environment

Which of the following is NOT a method of natural control?

Pesticide application

What is the main goal of cultural control?

To make the crop environment unsuitable for pests

What is the primary function of a trap crop?

To attract a pest to a localized area for destruction

Which of the following is an example of biological control?

Introducing beneficial insects

What is the definition of a pest?

Any living organism that causes damage or discomfort, or transmits or produces disease

What is the goal of eradication in pest management?

To eliminate the pest population completely

What is the purpose of clean culture in natural control?

To remove breeding sites or habitat of the pest

What is the primary mode of action of pyrethroid insecticides?

Disrupting nervous systems

What is the primary goal of genetic control in pest management?

To exploit the insect's mating behavior to introduce genetic abnormalities

What is a characteristic of pyrethrins and pyrethrum?

They are commonly used in home and garden insecticides

Which of the following is an example of a biological insecticide?

Bacillus thuringiensis

What is the technique of mass rearing, sterilizing, and releasing insects to reduce wild populations known as?

Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

Who is credited with first describing the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) in 1955?

E.F. Knipling

What is the term for the way in which a pesticide kills or inactivates a pest?

Mode of action

Which of the following insecticides affect the nervous system?

All of the above

What is the advantage of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) in pest management?

It creates inverse density-dependent feedback

Which of the following pest species was eradicated from the United States using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)?

Screwworm fly

What is a common use of pyrethrins and pyrethrum?

Killing flying and jumping insects

What is the primary mechanism of action of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) in reducing wild populations?

Introduction of genetic abnormalities into the eggs of the wild population

What is a characteristic of organophosphates?

They interfere with the transmission of nerve impulses

Which of the following is NOT a success story of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)?

Eradication of the Honey bee from California

What is a limitation of understanding the mode of action of newer insecticides?

Their mode of action is not fully understood

What is the purpose of sterilizing the insects in the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)?

To prevent successful matings in the wild population

What is the primary mechanism by which chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as methoxychlor and dicofol, affect nerve cells?

By inhibiting the movement of potassium and sodium ions across nerve cell surfaces

What is the mode of action of microbial insecticides?

They are ingested by insects, multiply inside, and cause cellular damage

What is the primary mechanism of action of fungal insecticides?

They infect insects through the cuticle and exoskeleton

What is the mode of action of insecticidal soaps?

They contact the outer body covering of insects, penetrate, and dissolve nearby cells

What is the primary mechanism of action of oil-based insecticides?

They smother insects by blocking their spiracles

What is the key difference between contact and stomach insecticides?

Contact insecticides are applied topically, while stomach insecticides are ingested

How do respiratory insecticides affect insects?

They suffocate insects by blocking their spiracles

Which of the following insecticides works by inhibiting the movement of potassium and sodium ions across nerve cell surfaces?

Methoxychlor

What is the role of viruses in microbial insecticides?

They infect insects and cause cellular damage

Which of the following insecticides is applied directly to the insect's body?

Insecticidal soap

What is the primary goal of SIT as a PM tactic?

To drive a wild population to extinction

What is a geographical limitation of using SIT?

The presence of natural barriers or defensible borders

Why is the release of lab-reared males in SIT dependent on the timing of the wild population?

To ensure the development of the lab-reared colony is synchronous with the wild population

What is the purpose of inherited/delayed sterility in SIT?

To reduce the number of insects required for SIT

What is a potential problem with the use of lab-reared males in SIT?

They may be less competitive than native males

What is a limitation of SIT in terms of knowledge about the pest?

All of the above

What is a potential problem with the use of radiation in SIT?

Native females may be able to recognize and refuse to mate with sterile males

What is an advantage of inherited/delayed sterility compared to traditional SIT?

It requires a lower dose of radiation and fewer insects

Study Notes

Pest Control

  • A pest is any living organism that causes damage or discomfort, or transmits or produces disease, and spreads diseases to mankind and harms the environment.
  • The three goals of pest management are prevention, suppression, and eradication, aiming for a clean environment and disease-free environment.

Natural Control

  • Natural control enhances naturally occurring pest management methods.
  • Cultural control makes the crop environment unsuitable for pests to feed, live, or reproduce, and includes methods such as soil tillage, crop rotation, harvest or planting date adjustment, irrigation schemes, variety selection, clean culture, and trap crops.
  • Clean culture removes breeding sites or the habitat of the pest, and trap crops attract pests to a localized area where the trap crop is destroyed or treated with a pesticide.

Genetic Control

  • Genetic control introduces genetic abnormalities into the eggs of the wild population, exploiting the insect's mating expertise.
  • The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) involves mass rearing of the target insect species (males), sterilizing them with ionizing radiation or chemosterilants, and releasing them in large numbers to reduce the probability of successful matings in the wild population.
  • SIT was first described by E.F. Knipling in 1955 and has been successfully used to eradicate screwworm flies, Mexican fruit flies, tsetse flies, and sweet potato weevils from various regions.

Advantages of SIT

  • Creates inverse density-dependent feedback, making it more efficient as the wild population decreases.

Insecticides

  • Pyrethroid insecticides kill insects by disrupting their nervous systems and are non-persistent and less acutely toxic than organophosphates and carbamates.
  • Biological insecticides include plant toxins (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, pyrethrum, and rotenone) and bacterial diseases (e.g., Bacillus thuringiensis), which are environmentally friendly.

Types of Insecticides

  • Organophosphates (e.g., Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion) interfere with the transmission of nerve impulses.
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., methoxychlor and dicofol) interfere with the normal movement of potassium and sodium ions across nerve cell surfaces.
  • Microbial insecticides consist of microorganisms that attack insects, such as Bacillus thuringiensis.
  • Fungal insecticides attack from the outside, growing through the cuticle and exoskeleton, and spreading throughout the body.
  • Insecticidal soaps (e.g., potassium salts of fatty acids) dissolve nearby cells, causing cell fluids to leak out and resulting in dehydration and death.
  • Oils are used to smother mites, scale insects, and aphid eggs.

Limitations of SIT

  • Geography: requires natural barriers or defensible borders to prevent the immigration of the target pest from outside the eradication zone.
  • Economics: high cost of rearing, sterilizing, and releasing a large number of insects needs to be justified.
  • Desirability of sterile males: lab-reared and sterilized males must be equally or more competitive than native males in mating with native females.
  • Knowledge about the pest: reproductive behavior, population dynamics, dispersal, and ecology of the insect are crucial for SIT.
  • Timing: development of the lab-reared colony must be synchronous with that of the wild population.
  • Resistance: native females may recognize and refuse to mate with sterile males.
  • Inherited/delayed sterility: an alternative genetic strategy to SIT, requiring fewer insects and lower doses of radiation.

Learn about the different methods of insect control, including natural, physical, mechanical, genetic, and biological control. Understand the definition of a pest and its impact on human health and the environment.

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