Inflammation Part 2 Summary Quiz

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10 Questions

Which type of chronic inflammation is characterized by nodular collections of specialized macrophages known as epithelioid cells?

Granulomatous inflammation

What is a specific feature of granulomatous inflammation?

Central necrosis (caseating)

What type of cells are predominant in chronic nonspecific inflammation?

Lymphocytes and macrophages

Which type of chronic inflammation shows proliferation of fibroblasts and new blood vessel formation?

Chronic nonspecific inflammation

What is the main characteristic of multinucleated giant cells in granulomatous inflammation?

Fused macrophages

Which cells are often found in nodules in granulomatous inflammation but not in necrotizing inflammation?

Epithelioid cells

What distinguishes chronic nonspecific inflammation from granulomatous inflammation?

Presence of epithelioid cells

'Giant cell' formation is a specific feature of which type of chronic inflammation?

'Caseating' (necrotizing) inflammation

'Epithelioid cells' in the context of chronic inflammation are characterized by:

'Abundant cytoplasm'

'Lymphocytes' play a significant role in which type of chronic inflammation?

Granulomatous non-caseating inflammation

Study Notes

Acute Inflammation

  • Acute suppurative inflammation: characterized by the presence of pus, composed of fluid exudate, neutrophils, pus cells, macrophages, necrotic fragments, and bacteria
  • Localized suppurative inflammation: caused by Staph aureus, characterized by thick d.t. and few sloughs, forms abscess, boil, and carbuncle
  • Diffuse suppurative inflammation: caused by Strept hemolyticus, characterized by thin d.t. and many sloughs, forms cellulitis, suppurative appendicitis, and septic peritonitis

Suppurative Inflammation

  • Forms of suppurative inflammation:
    • Abscess: a type of localized suppurative inflammation characterized by a cavity filled with pus
    • Boil (furuncle): an abscess related to the hair follicle, caused by Staph aureus
    • Carbuncle: multiple communicating furuncles that open to the surface by multiple sinuses

Non-Suppurative Inflammation

  • Exudative inflammation: depends on the composition of exudate
    • Serous inflammation: characterized by the exudation of cell-poor fluid into spaces created by injury to surface epithelia or into body cavities
    • Fibrinous inflammation: characterized by the formation of fibrin from fibrinogen, forming a fibrinous exudate
    • Sero-Fibrinous inflammation: characterized by the presence of both serous and fibrinous exudates
    • Catarrhal inflammation: exudative inflammation occurring on the mucous membranes of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, producing a watery exudate of serum and mucus
    • Hemorrhagic inflammation: characterized by the presence of RBCs in the exudate
    • Pseudomembranous inflammation: characterized by the formation of a false membrane

Chronic Inflammation

  • Chronic inflammation: inflammation of prolonged duration (weeks or months) in which inflammation, tissue destruction, and attempts at repair coexist
  • Causes of chronic inflammation:
    • Inciting injurious agent persists or recurs
    • Inflammatory reaction is insufficient to completely degrade the agent that incites the inflammatory reaction
    • Immune-mediated inflammatory disease, autoimmune diseases
    • Prolonged exposure to toxic substances, either endogenous or exogenous
    • De novo (TB)
  • Macrophages are the dominant cells in most chronic inflammatory reactions
  • Types of chronic inflammation:
    • Chronic nonspecific inflammation: characterized by a cellular reaction with predominance of mononuclear cells, often associated with proliferation of fibroblasts and new blood vessel formation
    • Chronic specific (Granulomatous inflammation): characterized by nodular collections of specialized macrophages referred to as epithelioid cells, often with T lymphocytes, and sometimes associated with central necrosis

Test your knowledge on types of acute, suppurative, non-suppurative, and chronic inflammation. Explore different forms of inflammation including catarrhal, hemorrhagic, and serofibrinous. See how much you know about the various aspects of inflammation.

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