Immunotherapy in Cancer and Immunological Disorders Quiz
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Immunotherapy in Cancer and Immunological Disorders Quiz

Test your knowledge of immunotherapy in cancer and immunological disorders with this quiz. Explore topics such as monoclonal antibodies, checkpoint inhibitors, CAR T cells, oncolytic viruses, and therapeutic cancer vaccines. Learn how these therapies target cancer cells and modulate immune responses in various conditions.

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@FlatterLogic

Questions and Answers

Who is credited with the development of variolation?

The Sung dynasty

What did Jenner use to expose the boy to in 1796?

Cowpox

What did Pasteur use the word 'vaccination' for?

Protective inoculation

When did the last wild type case of smallpox occur?

<p>1977</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which technique is used to separate proteins of antigen by size before transferring them to a nylon membrane in Western Blotting?

<p>SDS-PAGE</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is used to detect the label that indicates which proteins on the blot were recognized by antibodies in the serum in Western Blotting?

<p>Enzyme- or radioactively labeled secondary antibodies</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which technique involves counting and sorting cells labeled with fluorescent antibodies?

<p>Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What creates larger 'mouthfuls' for phagocytic cells in immunoassays involving visible antigen-antibody aggregates?

<p>Antibodies that cross-link antigens</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is used in passive agglutination when antigens are small?

<p>Antibodies or antigens attached to particles (latex beads)</p> Signup and view all the answers

In precipitation reactions, what can cross-link and form a precipitate?

<p>Antibodies bound to soluble antigens</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are relatively large particles such as cells cross-linked in direct agglutination test (DAT)?

<p>Antibody mixed with antigen; binding yields clumping</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are proper concentrations determined in precipitation reactions?

<p>By placing separate suspensions near each other in gel, and allowing molecules to diffuse</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which vaccine is used against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type B disease?

<p>DTaP-IPV-Hib</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which vaccine was added to the combination vaccine MMRV in late 2018?

<p>Varicella</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which vaccine contains inactivated viruses of all three types of poliovirus?

<p>Salk vaccine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which vaccine is cheaper and induces better mucosal immunity, leading to better herd immunity?

<p>Oral polio vaccine (OPV)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which vaccine allows wild poliovirus to replicate in intestines and can be transmitted to others, spreading rapidly?

<p>Oral polio vaccine (OPV)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of polio strain was eradicated in 2015?

<p>Type 2</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary purpose of immunotherapies?

<p>To treat cancer and other diseases by modifying specific immune responses</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do cancer immunotherapies attempt to overcome?

<p>Evasion mechanisms of cancer cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which therapy stimulates the proliferation of T cells?

<p>Interleukin 2 (IL-2)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do checkpoint inhibitors target?

<p>Tumor cell surveillance</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary purpose of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in cancer treatment?

<p>To mark cancer cells for destruction via ADCC</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is rituximab primarily used to treat?

<p>B-cell cancers</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the basis of many rapid tests?

<p>Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What test uses fluorescence microscopy to locate labeled antibodies bound to antigens?

<p>Fluorescent Antibody (FA) Test</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of antibodies recognize one epitope on an antigen?

<p>Monoclonal antibodies</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is used to treat infectious diseases such as inhalational anthrax, HIV, Ebola, and COVID-19?

<p>Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the reciprocal of the last dilution that gives a detectable antigen-antibody reaction?

<p>Titer</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which test is used to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection?

<p>Tuberculin skin test (PPD test)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of testing examines a patient’s blood for antibodies to diagnose a disease?

<p>Serological testing</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is used to detect antibodies in human blood and serum?

<p>Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What converts colorless substrate to a colored product in ELISA?

<p>Antibodies labeled with an enzyme</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do therapeutic antibodies provide?

<p>Necessary components</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do polyclonal antibodies bind to?

<p>Multiple epitopes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do immunoassays use as labeled antibodies?

<p>Enzymes, fluorescent dye, or radioactive isotopes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of immunity results from exposure to antigen and involves activated lymphocytes and memory cells?

<p>Active immunity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of immunity comes from the addition of other's antibodies, providing temporary protection without memory cell formation?

<p>Artificial passive immunity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of vaccines are weakened forms of pathogens that can induce long-lasting immunity but may cause disease in immunosuppressed individuals?

<p>Attenuated vaccines</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of vaccines cannot replicate or cause infections, often requiring several booster doses?

<p>Inactivated vaccines</p> Signup and view all the answers

What occurs when a critical portion of the population is immune, preventing the spread of infectious agents?

<p>Herd immunity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of immunity occurs during pregnancy and through breast milk?

<p>Natural passive immunity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What characteristic should effective vaccines have?

<p>Safety, few side effects, long-lasting protection, low cost, and easy to administer</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of vaccines often require several booster doses?

<p>Inactivated vaccines</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a type of inactivated vaccine?

<p>Attenuated</p> Signup and view all the answers

What has greatly reduced disease incidence but drops in rates have led to disease outbreaks?

<p>Vaccines</p> Signup and view all the answers

What has led to false beliefs about the risk of vaccination being greater than the risk of diseases?

<p>Reports of adverse effects of vaccines</p> Signup and view all the answers

What dramatically reduces the incidence of diseases such as diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type b invasive disease, measles, and mumps?

<p>Vaccination</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does Trastuzumab treat breast cancers with high HER2 expression?

<p>By interfering with cancer cell growth</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Kohler and Milstein win a Nobel prize for in 1984?

<p>Their work on monoclonal antibodies</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do conjugated antibodies, e.g., Rituximab conjugated with a cell-damaging molecule, do to cancerous cells?

<p>Destroy B cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do checkpoint inhibitors function in cancer treatment?

<p>Interfere with immune checkpoints</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of Bi-specific antibodies, e.g., Blinatumomab?

<p>Treat acute lymphocytic leukemias</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells function in cancer treatment?

<p>Recognize and destroy cells with specific epitopes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the target of FDA-approved checkpoint inhibitors in cancer treatment?

<p>PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and the CTLA-4 pathway</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do oncolytic viruses do in cancer treatment?

<p>Directly destroy cancerous cells and stimulate an anti-tumor immune response</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of therapeutic cancer vaccines?

<p>Expose leukocytes to genetically engineered proteins to activate T cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do immunotherapies treat autoimmune diseases and hypersensitivity?

<p>By suppressing immune responses, targeting T or B cells, or inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the target of Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in cancer treatment?

<p>B cells by binding to CD20, marking them for destruction</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Immunotherapy in Cancer and Immunological Disorders

  • Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) target B cells by binding to CD20, marking them for destruction
  • Some mAbs interfere with growth factors necessary for cancer cell proliferation
  • Trastuzumab treats breast cancers with high HER2 expression by interfering with cancer cell growth
  • Conjugated antibodies deliver toxins to cancerous cells, e.g., Rituximab conjugated with a cell-damaging molecule destroys B cells
  • Bi-specific antibodies have two antigen-binding sites, e.g., Blinatumomab treats acute lymphocytic leukemias
  • Checkpoint inhibitors interfere with immune checkpoints, allowing the immune system to attack cancer cells
  • FDA-approved checkpoint inhibitors are mAbs that block the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and the CTLA-4 pathway
  • Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells are genetically engineered to recognize and destroy cells with specific epitopes
  • FDA-approved oncolytic viruses directly destroy cancerous cells and stimulate an anti-tumor immune response
  • Therapeutic cancer vaccines, e.g., for prostate cancer, expose leukocytes to genetically engineered proteins to activate T cells
  • Immunotherapies treat autoimmune diseases and hypersensitivity by suppressing immune responses, targeting T or B cells, or inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines
  • Kohler and Milstein won a Nobel prize in 1984 for their work on monoclonal antibodies

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