Immunotherapy and Viral Vaccines
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Immunotherapy and Viral Vaccines

Explore the world of immunotherapy and viral vaccines with this quiz covering cytokines, cancer treatment, viral vaccines, and cellular immunotherapy. Test your knowledge on endogenous hormones of the immune system, examples of cytokines used to treat cancer, and the 9-valent HPV vaccine.

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@StimulativeDevotion

Questions and Answers

What is the second leading cause of death globally?

Cancer

Which genetic alteration is necessary for the activation of oncogenes?

Gene amplifications

What do tumor suppressor genes counteract or suppress?

Cell proliferation

Which process recruits key players in DNA repair, activating cell cycle checkpoints and cell cycle arrest?

<p>DNA damage</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of proto-oncogenes?

<p>To regulate cell cycle and proliferation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of mutation causes tumor suppressor genes to become nonfunctional?

<p>Epigenetic silencing</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which phase of the cell cycle are cells mostly arrested if DNA damage occurs?

<p>'G1/S' phase</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do gain-of-function mutations typically cause?

<p>'Constitutively active' proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

'APC' and 'DCC' are associated with which type of cancer according to Fearson and Vogelstein’s genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis?

<p>'Colorectal cancer'</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which genetic alteration can activate proto-oncogenes into oncogenes?

<p>Gene duplications</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is not a risk factor for cancer?

<p>History of cancer</p> Signup and view all the answers

What process leads to the formation of metastasis in cancer?

<p>Cell proliferation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which prefix indicates cancer in epithelial cells?

<p>Adeno</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do gain-of-function mutations typically cause?

<p>Uncontrolled cell growth</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a similarity between multipotent normal stem cells and cancer stem cells?

<p>Both have unlimited potential for proliferation.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main characteristic of the G0 phase of the cell cycle?

<p>Resting phase with normal function but no division</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cellular functions are inappropriately regulated in cancer, according to the text?

<p>Chromosomal and genetic organization</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can cause destabilization of chromosomal and genetic organization?

<p>Ionizing radiation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of genetic alteration can activate proto-oncogenes into oncogenes?

<p>Gain-of-function mutations</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of immunosuppressive drugs like cyclosporine and azathioprine in relation to cancer?

<p>Potential for causing cancer</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which viral genes cause malignant transformation of host cells?

<p>'HTLV-1' and 'HHV-8'</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main property of cancer stem cells?

<p>'Indefinite self-renewal'</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the initiation of the cell cycle occur?

<p>When cells enter into G1 phase</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which chemical carcinogen is associated with skin cancer?

<p>Coal tar (topical)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do multipotent progenitor cells maintain?

<p>Tissue regeneration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a characteristic of terminally differentiated cells?

<p>Maintain tissue regeneration</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which immunocompromised condition is associated with the highest relative risk of developing Kaposi’s sarcoma?

<p>Organ allograft recipients</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of cancer?

<p>Target specific cancer cells for destruction</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of immune deficiency is associated with a relative risk of 100 for developing non-hodgkin’s lymphoma?

<p>Organ allograft recipients</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the mechanism of action of checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of cancer?

<p>Activate immune system response against cancer cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of cancer is associated with a relative risk of 150 – 200 in immunocompromised individuals?

<p>Kaposi’s sarcoma</p> Signup and view all the answers

What role do cytokines play in the treatment of cancer?

<p>Activate immune system against cancer cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the principal mechanism of tumor immunity as described in the text?

<p>Killing of tumor cells by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process whereby the immune system can both constrain and promote tumor development?

<p>Equilibrium</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which phase, the immunogenicity of a tumor is edited such that it stays in check without being removed by the immune system?

<p>Equilibrium</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which class of irritants, together with tissue injury and ensuing inflammation, was hypothesized to enhance cell proliferation at sites of chronic inflammation?

<p>None of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What hypothesis was proposed by Virchow in 1863 regarding the origin of cancer?

<p>Cancer originates at sites of chronic inflammation</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the information provided, what is the principal function of NK cells in tumor eradication?

<p>Killing many types of tumor cells, especially those with reduced class I MHC expression</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which process involves the destruction of the target tumor cell through degranulation and perforation by NK cells?

<p>Cytotoxicity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary process used by the immune system to recognize 'foreign' cells or material?

<p>Antigen recognition</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of monoclonal antibodies (mABs) are indicated for treatment in multiple cancer types by suppressing angiogenesis?

<p>Neutralization of ligand</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Altered self' recognition is a process used by the immune system to recognize:

<p>'Altered' self as well as 'foreign' material</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cell-mediated cytotoxicity involves the destruction of the target tumor cell through degranulation and perforation by NK cells?

<p>ADCC</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a characteristic feature of tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) according to the text?

<p>Shared by all tumors induced by the same virus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which monoclonal antibody targets the inactivation of growth factor receptors such as HER2 and VEGFR?

<p>Cetuximab</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs)' are expressed during a specific developmental stage called:

<p>'Oncofetal' antigens stage</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which process involves the activation of components of the complement system to recognize and attach complement-fixing antibodies to tumor-specific surface antigens?

<p>Cytotoxicity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which monoclonal antibody is derived from a single B lymphocyte or its clone and provides the majority of antibody-based immunity against invading pathogens?

<p>Rituximab</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs)' are expressed at very low levels in normal tissue, but overexpressed or mutated in cancer. This statement describes which characteristic feature of TAAs?

<p>Ectopic expression in non-germ line cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Tumor antigens prompt action from which immune cells according to the text?'

<p>Natural killer cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which monoclonal antibody conjugate is indicated for the treatment of Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (SALCL)?

<p>Brentuximab vedotin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which monoclonal antibody-conjugate has the origin that is humanized and used in treating Breast cancer?

<p>Mertansine (T-DM1)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which monoclonal antibody is indicated for treating Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and has the origin that is humanized?

<p>Ofatumumab</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which monoclonal antibody is indicated for treating Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) and has the origin that is murine?

<p>Ibritumomab tiuxetan</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which monoclonal antibody targets CD33 and its conjugate contains ozogamicin?

<p>Mylotarg</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which monoclonal antibody conjugate is indicated for treating acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)?

<p>Gemtuzumab ozogamicin Ozogamicin (Mylotarg)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main advantage of apoptosis compared to cell lysis induced by ADCC or CDC or necrosis?

<p>Early apoptotic cells are cleared by phagocytosis before they lose their plasma membrane barrier</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cellular signaling pathways are involved in the activation of apoptosis?

<p>The intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway and the extrinsic pathway (death receptor pathway)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which proteins control the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway of apoptosis?

<p>The pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

How is the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis induced?

<p>By ligand binding to the cell surface death receptors and activating its cytoplasmic death domain</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which function do monoclonal antibodies (mABs) primarily engage to induce apoptosis in cancer cells?

<p>Both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways</p> Signup and view all the answers

When is the neutralization function of monoclonal antibodies (mABs) most effective in cancer?

<p>When the target plays a role in cancer cell biology</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main advantage of apoptotic cell removal by phagocytosis?

<p>Prevents damage to the surrounding tissue</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a hallmark of apoptosis, according to the text?

<p>Activation of a caspase cascade, resulting in cleavage of numerous structural and signaling proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What controls the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway of apoptosis?

<p>The pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a function of monoclonal antibodies (mABs) used in cancer therapy, according to the text?

<p>Engaging extrinsic or intrinsic pathways</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which characteristic feature of tumor antigens (TAs) makes them potential targets for monoclonal antibody (mAB) therapy in cancer?

<p>Abundant expression and/or increased activity on cancer cells versus healthy cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which mechanism of action is most significant for monoclonal antibodies (mABs) in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, according to the provided information?

<p>Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of natural killer (NK) cells in the eradication of tumors, as mentioned in the text?

<p>Inducing apoptosis through ADCC</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which class of irritants, together with tissue injury and ensuing inflammation, was hypothesized to enhance cell proliferation at sites of chronic inflammation, as per the text?

<p>Chemical irritants</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the information provided, which prefix indicates cancer in epithelial cells?

<p>Adeno-</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which genetic alteration is typically required for cancer initiation and progression, based on the text?

<p>Activation of proto-oncogenes into oncogenes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the mechanism of action of Blinatumomab (CD19/CD3)?

<p>Activation of T-cell mediated cytotoxicity</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are fully human antibodies derived?

<p>From transgenic mice with a 'human' immune system</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main route of administration for monoclonal antibodies (mABs)?

<p>Intravenous (IV) infusion</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary mechanism-based adverse drug reaction (ADR) associated with Inotuzumab ozogamicin?

<p>Neutropenia</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary mechanism of action of Trastuzumab (T) and Pertuzumab?

<p>Neutralization of HER2</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are monoclonal antibodies (mABs) mainly eliminated from the body?

<p>Lysosomal degradation to amino acids</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which monoclonal antibody is associated with the adverse drug reaction (ADR) of acneiform rash?

<p>Cetuximab</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of cancer immunotherapy?

<p>To educate immune cells to recognize and engage with cancer cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does Bispecific T cell Engager (BiTE) blinatumomab (CD19/CD3) induce cytotoxicity?

<p>By forcing T cells to come in close proximity of tumor cells, inducing T-cell dependent cytotoxicity</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are chimeric and humanized antibodies made?

<p>Using recombinant DNA technologies to create hybrid antibodies with both human and mouse components</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary mechanism-based ADR associated with Brentuximab vedotin?

<p>Neutropenia</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the mechanism of action of Sipuleucel-T in cellular immunotherapy?

<p>Targets antigen-presenting cells and activate the T cells that can mount an attack on the patient's cancer cells.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which viral vaccine is prepared from various virus capsid proteins and does not contain any live or attenuated virus?

<p>The 9-valent HPV vaccine</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) scFv in Tisagenlecleucel therapy?

<p>Induce T cell activation upon antigen binding.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main mechanism-based adverse drug reaction (ADR) associated with CAR-T therapy?

<p>Prolonged cytopenias, serious infections, and cytokine release syndrome.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which Nobel Prize winner was associated with the discovery of Pembrolizumab targeting PD-1 receptor?

<p>Jim Allison, PhD</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of CTLA-4 in the immune system?

<p>Prevent autoimmunity by regulating immune responses.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the principal function of PD1/PD-L1 pathway in cancer immunotherapy?

<p>Recognition of cancer cells by T cells.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the rationale for using immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy?

<p>To balance co-stimulatory and inhibitory signals in the immune system.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the potential warning or precaution associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors?

<p>Some cases of cytokine release syndrome reported but not very common.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of cytokines in cancer treatment?

<p>To induce robust T cell activation upon antigen binding.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of PD1/PD-L1 pathway in immunology?

<p>To balance co-stimulatory and inhibitory signals in the immune system.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main characteristic of CAR-T therapy in cancer treatment?

<p>Involves genetic modification of patient's own T cells to attack cancer cells.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Cancer Biology

  • The second leading cause of death globally is cancer.

Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressors

  • A genetic alteration is necessary for the activation of oncogenes.
  • Tumor suppressor genes counteract or suppress the cell's growth and division.
  • Proto-oncogenes are normal genes that have the potential to become oncogenes.
  • Gain-of-function mutations typically cause the activation of oncogenes.

Cell Cycle and DNA Repair

  • Cells are mostly arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle if DNA damage occurs.
  • The process of DNA repair recruits key players, activating cell cycle checkpoints and cell cycle arrest.

Cancer Development

  • APC and DCC are associated with colorectal cancer according to Fearson and Vogelstein's genetic model.
  • Proto-oncogenes can be activated into oncogenes through genetic alterations.
  • Mutations can cause tumor suppressor genes to become nonfunctional.

Cancer Stem Cells and Genetics

  • Multipotent progenitor cells maintain tissue and organ homeostasis.
  • Cytokines play a crucial role in the treatment of cancer.
  • The principal mechanism of tumor immunity is the immune system's recognition of tumor-specific antigens.

Immunology and Cancer

  • APC stands for Antigen-Presenting Cells, which are essential for immune responses.
  • The main function of monoclonal antibodies in cancer treatment is to label and target cancer cells.
  • Immunosuppressive drugs like cyclosporine and azathioprine can increase the risk of developing cancer.

Cancer Treatment and Immunotherapy

  • Checkpoint inhibitors work by recognizing and blocking immune checkpoint molecules on cancer cells.
  • Cancer stem cells have the ability to self-renew, are resistant to chemotherapy, and have the potential to differentiate into different cell types.
  • The primary mechanism of action of monoclonal antibodies is to recognize and bind to specific antigens on cancer cells.

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