Immune System Diversity and Memory Quiz
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Immune System Diversity and Memory Quiz

Test your knowledge of the immune system's innate and adaptive elements, B and T lymphocytes, immune diversity, and memory. Learn about antigens, B cells, and the evolution of immunity in multicellular animals.

Created by
@AdaptableFaith

Questions and Answers

What is the primary site of development for B cells?

Bone marrow

What is responsible for immunological memory in the immune system?

Adaptive immunity

Which lymphocytes are activated by their specific interaction with antigens?

T cells

16

<p>16.1 The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Immunity adaptive (acquired) immunity – The response mediated by lymphocytes that are activated by their specific interaction with antigen.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do mitogens increase G1–Cdk activity?

<p>By activating the MAP kinase cascade and promoting cyclin D gene expression</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which lymphocytes are differentiated in the thymus from stem cells of bone marrow origin?

<p>T cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade in mitogenic control of G1–Cdk activity?

<p>It stimulates cyclin D gene expression and promotes cyclin D–Cdk activity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the consequence of mitogens promoting the assembly of cyclin D–Cdk4 complex?

<p>Increased G1–Cdk activity</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does CDK4 contribute to G1–Cdk activity?

<p>By promoting the assembly of cyclin D–Cdk4 complex</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does PI3 kinase (PI3K) influence G1–Cdk activity?

<p>It inhibits GSK3b to suppress cyclin D nuclear export and destruction, enhancing G1–Cdk activity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the impact of GSK3b inhibition by mitogens on cyclin D–Cdk activity?

<p>Suppressed nuclear export and destruction of cyclin D, leading to increased cyclin D–Cdk activity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of extracellular mitogens in controlling cell division?

<p>Stimulating the synthesis of immediate early genes</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the Ras pathway contribute to mitogenic signaling?

<p>Recruiting and activating the protein kinase Raf</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the PI3 kinase pathway in mitogenic signaling?

<p>Phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol (PI)</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does TGF-β exert anti-mitogenic actions?

<p>Repressing expression of MYC</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of Myc protein in cell division?

<p>Stimulating the synthesis of immediate early genes</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do animal cells coordinate cell growth and division?

<p>By ensuring that division occurs only when growth is sufficient</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a general mechanism for controlling cell growth and division in some animal cells?

<p>Separate control of growth and division by independent factors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the primary treatment used on cultured Schwann cells from rats?

<p>(growth factor) IGF-I</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the consequence of high levels of Myc protein in proliferating cells?

<p>Stimulation of synthesis of immediate early genes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the outcome of G1 arrest stimulated by TGF-β?

<p>Activation of the gene encoding p15INK4b</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

B Cell Development and Immunological Memory

  • The primary site of development for B cells is the bone marrow.
  • Immunological memory in the immune system is responsible for remembering and responding to previous infections.

Lymphocyte Activation and Development

  • Lymphocytes that are activated by their specific interaction with antigens are called antigen-specific lymphocytes.
  • The thymus is responsible for differentiating lymphocytes from stem cells of bone marrow origin.

Mitogenic Control of G1-Cdk Activity

  • Mitogens increase G1-Cdk activity by promoting the assembly of cyclin D-Cdk4 complex.
  • The consequence of mitogens promoting the assembly of cyclin D-Cdk4 complex is the activation of G1-Cdk activity.
  • CDK4 contributes to G1-Cdk activity by forming a complex with cyclin D.
  • PI3 kinase (PI3K) influences G1-Cdk activity by activating CDK4.
  • The inhibition of GSK3b by mitogens leads to the activation of cyclin D-Cdk activity.
  • The MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade plays a key role in the mitogenic control of G1-Cdk activity.

Cell Division and Growth

  • The primary role of extracellular mitogens in controlling cell division is to stimulate G1-Cdk activity.
  • The Ras pathway contributes to mitogenic signaling by activating the MAPK cascade.
  • The primary function of the PI3 kinase pathway in mitogenic signaling is to activate CDK4.
  • TGF-β exerts anti-mitogenic actions by stimulating G1 arrest.
  • Myc protein plays a key role in cell division by regulating G1-Cdk activity.
  • Animal cells coordinate cell growth and division by regulating the G1-Cdk activity.
  • A general mechanism for controlling cell growth and division in some animal cells is the regulation of G1-Cdk activity.

Cell Culture and Treatment

  • Cultured Schwann cells from rats were primarily treated with high levels of Myc protein.
  • The consequence of high levels of Myc protein in proliferating cells is the stimulation of G1-Cdk activity.
  • The outcome of G1 arrest stimulated by TGF-β is the inhibition of cell growth and division.

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