Human Skeletal and Muscular Systems

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6 Questions

What is the primary function of the skeletal system?

To provide support, protection, and movement for the body

What type of muscle is found in internal organs and is controlled by the autonomic nervous system?

Smooth muscles

Which part of the nervous system transmits and processes information?

Spinal cord

What is the main function of the circulatory system?

Transportation of oxygen and nutrients to cells

Where does mechanical breakdown of food occur in the digestive system?

Mouth

What is the function of the autonomic nervous system in the nervous system?

Control of involuntary functions

Study Notes

Skeletal System

  • Composed of 206 bones that provide support, protection, and movement for the body
  • Divided into two main parts:
    • Axial skeleton (80 bones): skull, vertebral column, ribs, sternum
    • Appendicular skeleton (126 bones): upper and lower limbs, pelvis, shoulder girdle
  • Functions:
    • Support and protection of internal organs
    • Movement and muscle attachment
    • Blood cell production (bone marrow)
    • Storage of minerals (e.g., calcium, phosphorus)

Muscular System

  • Composed of approximately 640 muscles that facilitate movement and maintain posture
  • Types of muscles:
    • Skeletal muscles (voluntary): attached to bones, controlled by nervous system
    • Smooth muscles (involuntary): found in internal organs, controlled by autonomic nervous system
    • Cardiac muscles (involuntary): found in the heart, controlled by autonomic nervous system
  • Functions:
    • Movement and locomotion
    • Maintenance of posture
    • Regulation of body temperature
    • Support for blood vessels and organs

Nervous System

  • Composed of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • CNS:
    • Brain: controls higher-level functions (thought, emotion, sensation)
    • Spinal cord: transmits and processes information
  • PNS:
    • Somatic nervous system: controls voluntary movements
    • Autonomic nervous system: controls involuntary functions (heart rate, digestion, etc.)
  • Functions:
    • Control and coordination of body functions
    • Transmission and processing of sensory information
    • Regulation of body functions (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure)

Circulatory System

  • Composed of the heart, arteries, veins, and blood vessels
  • Functions:
    • Transportation of oxygen and nutrients to cells
    • Removal of waste products from cells
    • Regulation of body temperature
    • Maintenance of blood pressure
  • Components:
    • Heart: pumps blood throughout the body
    • Arteries: transport oxygenated blood away from the heart
    • Veins: transport deoxygenated blood back to the heart
    • Blood vessels: regulate blood flow and pressure

Digestive System

  • Composed of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
  • Functions:
    • Ingestion and breakdown of food
    • Absorption of nutrients
    • Elimination of waste products
  • Components:
    • Mouth: mechanical breakdown of food
    • Stomach: chemical breakdown of food
    • Small intestine: absorption of nutrients
    • Large intestine: absorption of water, electrolytes, and vitamins

Skeletal System

  • Comprises 206 bones providing support, protection, and movement for the body
  • Divided into axial skeleton (80 bones) and appendicular skeleton (126 bones)
  • Axial skeleton includes skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum
  • Appendicular skeleton includes upper and lower limbs, pelvis, and shoulder girdle
  • Functions include support and protection of internal organs, movement and muscle attachment, blood cell production, and storage of minerals

Muscular System

  • Comprises approximately 640 muscles facilitating movement and maintaining posture
  • Types of muscles include skeletal (voluntary), smooth (involuntary), and cardiac (involuntary) muscles
  • Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and controlled by the nervous system
  • Smooth muscles are found in internal organs and controlled by the autonomic nervous system
  • Cardiac muscles are found in the heart and controlled by the autonomic nervous system
  • Functions include movement and locomotion, maintenance of posture, regulation of body temperature, and support for blood vessels and organs

Nervous System

  • Comprises the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • CNS includes the brain and spinal cord
  • Brain controls higher-level functions such as thought, emotion, and sensation
  • Spinal cord transmits and processes information
  • PNS includes the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
  • Somatic nervous system controls voluntary movements
  • Autonomic nervous system controls involuntary functions such as heart rate and digestion
  • Functions include control and coordination of body functions, transmission and processing of sensory information, and regulation of body functions

Circulatory System

  • Comprises the heart, arteries, veins, and blood vessels
  • Functions include transportation of oxygen and nutrients to cells, removal of waste products, regulation of body temperature, and maintenance of blood pressure
  • Heart pumps blood throughout the body
  • Arteries transport oxygenated blood away from the heart
  • Veins transport deoxygenated blood back to the heart
  • Blood vessels regulate blood flow and pressure

Digestive System

  • Comprises the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
  • Functions include ingestion and breakdown of food, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of waste products
  • Mouth facilitates mechanical breakdown of food
  • Stomach facilitates chemical breakdown of food
  • Small intestine absorbs nutrients
  • Large intestine absorbs water, electrolytes, and vitamins

This quiz covers the basic structure and functions of the skeletal and muscular systems, including their components, functions, and importance in the human body.

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