Human Nervous System: Structure and Function

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12 Questions

What are the three main parts of a neuron?

Axon, dendrites, synapses

What are synapses in the context of neurons?

Gaps between neurons where signals are transmitted

Which part of the nervous system prepares the body for action by increasing heart rate and respiration?

Sympathetic nervous system

What is the function of the parasympathetic nervous system?

Relax the body and conserve energy

What is the function of neurotransmitters in the nervous system?

Transmit signals across synapses

Which part of a neuron receives signals from other neurons?

Cell body

What is the main function of the central nervous system?

Processing sensory information and generating responses to stimuli

Which part of the brain controls conscious thought and behavior?

Cerebrum

Which part of the nervous system is responsible for relaying information between the CNS and the rest of the body?

Peripheral nervous system

What are neurons?

Cells that transmit information throughout the nervous system

What does the autonomic nervous system control?

Involuntary functions like heart rate and digestion

Which part of the nervous system is responsible for coordinating muscle movement?

Cerebellum

Study Notes

Nervous System

The human nervous system is a complex and intricate network of cells, fibers, and organs that coordinate the body's responses to internal and external stimuli. It is responsible for controlling and coordinating the body's functions, such as movement, sensory perception, thought, and memory. The nervous system is divided into two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

Central Nervous System (CNS)

The CNS is the control center for the body and includes the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for processing sensory information, generating responses to stimuli, and controlling bodily functions such as breathing, heart rate, and digestion. The brain consists of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The cerebrum controls conscious thought and behavior, the cerebellum coordinates muscle movement, and the brainstem connects the brain to the spinal cord.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

The PNS is responsible for relaying information between the CNS and the rest of the body. It includes the somatic nervous system, which controls voluntary movement, and the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary functions like heart rate and digestion.

Neurons and Synapses

Neurons are specialized cells that transmit information throughout the nervous system. They have three main parts: the cell body, axon, and dendrites. The axon is a long, thin extension that carries electrical signals away from the cell body, while the dendrites receive signals from other neurons. Synapses are the gaps between neurons where signals are transmitted from one neuron to another. Neurotransmitters, which are chemicals released by neurons, help transmit these signals across the synapse.

Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the part of the PNS that controls the body's involuntary functions. It is divided into two branches: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for action by increasing heart rate and respiration, while the parasympathetic nervous system relaxes the body and conserves energy.

The nervous system is a complex and intricate network that allows us to process information, make decisions, and interact with the world around us. Understanding its structure and function is essential for understanding how we experience and respond to our environment.

Explore the complex network of cells, fibers, and organs that make up the human nervous system, and its role in coordinating bodily functions, processing sensory information, and controlling voluntary and involuntary movements. Learn about the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS), neurons, synapses, and the autonomic nervous system.

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