Human Biology: Male Reproductive System
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Human Biology: Male Reproductive System

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Male Reproductive System

  • The male reproductive system consists of the male gonads (testicles), genital tract, accessory glands, and penis.
  • The penis is responsible for depositing sperm in the vagina and consists of erectile tissue, with three regions: two corpora cavernosa and one corpus spongiosum.

Penis

  • Corpus spongiosum surrounds the urethra, keeping it open at all times, and widens at the end to form the glans.
  • The glans is a very sensitive area protected by a fold of skin called the foreskin.
  • When the penis is erect, the foreskin retracts to leave the glans uncovered.

Testicles

  • The testicles are two oval-shaped organs inside a sack of skin called the scrotum, which hangs outside the abdominal cavity.
  • Each testicle is made up of millions of semiiferous tubules containing sperm precursor cells that make the male gametes.
  • The temperature of the testicles is about 3 °C lower than body temperature, essential for sperm maturation.
  • Endocrine cells between the seminiferous tubules produce testosterone, responsible for male secondary sexual characteristics.

Genital Tract

  • The genital tract consists of the ducts that take sperm to the outside of the body: the epididymis, vas deferens, and urethra.
  • The epididymis is a long, coiled tube attached to the top of each testicle, where sperm is stored while it matures.
  • The urethra is a shared duct with the excretory system, expelling semen and urine from the body.
  • The vas deferens passes through the prostate and empties into the urethra, carrying sperm cells from the epididymis to the urethra.

Accessory Glands

  • The accessory glands secrete substances that mix with sperm to form semen, including the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and Cowper's glands.
  • The seminal vesicles produce seminal fluid, rich in fructose, the main energy source of sperm.
  • The prostate gland produces prostatic fluid, which activates sperm and neutralizes the acidity of female mucous secretions.
  • The Cowper's glands secrete a lubricating fluid that neutralizes the acidity of the urethra before semen passes through it.

Female Reproductive System

  • Consists of ovaries, genital tract, and external genitalia

Ovaries

  • Almond-sized and almond-shaped
  • Suspended in the abdominal cavity by small ligaments
  • Produce oestrogen and progesterone, responsible for female secondary sexual characteristics and preparing the body for possible pregnancy
  • Composed of medulla (inner part) and cortex (outer part)
  • Cortex contains numerous follicles that contain immature eggs (oocytes)

Genital Tract

  • Consists of fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina
  • Fallopian tubes connect ovaries to the uterus, collecting eggs through the infundibulum
  • Uterus is a hollow, muscular, upside-down pear-shaped organ
  • Cervix is the narrow section at the bottom of the uterus
  • Uterus wall is composed of myometrium (smooth muscle layer) and endometrium (epithelial cell layer)
  • Vagina is an elastic duct connecting the cervix to the outside of the body, with lubricant-secreting glands on its walls

External Genitalia

  • Combines to form the vulva
  • Labia majora are two outer folds of skin that cover the labia minora (two thinner folds)
  • Clitoris is an organ near the top junction of the labia minora, equivalent to the male glans

Menstruation

  • Dysmenorrhea (menstrual cramps) is caused by uterine contractions during the menstrual period
  • Common and causes pain in the stomach, hips, and back

Female Reproductive System

  • Consists of ovaries, genital tract, and external genitalia

Ovaries

  • Almond-sized and almond-shaped
  • Suspended in the abdominal cavity by small ligaments
  • Produce oestrogen and progesterone, responsible for female secondary sexual characteristics and preparing the body for possible pregnancy
  • Composed of medulla (inner part) and cortex (outer part)
  • Cortex contains numerous follicles that contain immature eggs (oocytes)

Genital Tract

  • Consists of fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina
  • Fallopian tubes connect ovaries to the uterus, collecting eggs through the infundibulum
  • Uterus is a hollow, muscular, upside-down pear-shaped organ
  • Cervix is the narrow section at the bottom of the uterus
  • Uterus wall is composed of myometrium (smooth muscle layer) and endometrium (epithelial cell layer)
  • Vagina is an elastic duct connecting the cervix to the outside of the body, with lubricant-secreting glands on its walls

External Genitalia

  • Combines to form the vulva
  • Labia majora are two outer folds of skin that cover the labia minora (two thinner folds)
  • Clitoris is an organ near the top junction of the labia minora, equivalent to the male glans

Menstruation

  • Dysmenorrhea (menstrual cramps) is caused by uterine contractions during the menstrual period
  • Common and causes pain in the stomach, hips, and back

Female Reproductive System

  • Consists of ovaries, genital tract, and external genitalia

Ovaries

  • Almond-sized and almond-shaped
  • Suspended in the abdominal cavity by small ligaments
  • Produce oestrogen and progesterone, responsible for female secondary sexual characteristics and preparing the body for possible pregnancy
  • Composed of medulla (inner part) and cortex (outer part)
  • Cortex contains numerous follicles that contain immature eggs (oocytes)

Genital Tract

  • Consists of fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina
  • Fallopian tubes connect ovaries to the uterus, collecting eggs through the infundibulum
  • Uterus is a hollow, muscular, upside-down pear-shaped organ
  • Cervix is the narrow section at the bottom of the uterus
  • Uterus wall is composed of myometrium (smooth muscle layer) and endometrium (epithelial cell layer)
  • Vagina is an elastic duct connecting the cervix to the outside of the body, with lubricant-secreting glands on its walls

External Genitalia

  • Combines to form the vulva
  • Labia majora are two outer folds of skin that cover the labia minora (two thinner folds)
  • Clitoris is an organ near the top junction of the labia minora, equivalent to the male glans

Menstruation

  • Dysmenorrhea (menstrual cramps) is caused by uterine contractions during the menstrual period
  • Common and causes pain in the stomach, hips, and back

Female Reproductive System

  • Consists of ovaries, genital tract, and external genitalia

Ovaries

  • Almond-sized and almond-shaped
  • Suspended in the abdominal cavity by small ligaments
  • Produce oestrogen and progesterone, responsible for female secondary sexual characteristics and preparing the body for possible pregnancy
  • Composed of medulla (inner part) and cortex (outer part)
  • Cortex contains numerous follicles that contain immature eggs (oocytes)

Genital Tract

  • Consists of fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina
  • Fallopian tubes connect ovaries to the uterus, collecting eggs through the infundibulum
  • Uterus is a hollow, muscular, upside-down pear-shaped organ
  • Cervix is the narrow section at the bottom of the uterus
  • Uterus wall is composed of myometrium (smooth muscle layer) and endometrium (epithelial cell layer)
  • Vagina is an elastic duct connecting the cervix to the outside of the body, with lubricant-secreting glands on its walls

External Genitalia

  • Combines to form the vulva
  • Labia majora are two outer folds of skin that cover the labia minora (two thinner folds)
  • Clitoris is an organ near the top junction of the labia minora, equivalent to the male glans

Menstruation

  • Dysmenorrhea (menstrual cramps) is caused by uterine contractions during the menstrual period
  • Common and causes pain in the stomach, hips, and back

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Description

Learn about the male reproductive system, its components, and functions. This quiz covers the penis, testicles, genital tract, and accessory glands.

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