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Human Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 4: DNA and Cellular Level

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What is the primary function of a ribosome in protein synthesis?

To translate mRNA into a protein sequence

What is the term for the sequence of three nucleotides on mRNA that corresponds to a specific amino acid?

Codon

What is the role of tRNA in protein synthesis?

To carry amino acids to the ribosome during translation

What is the consequence of misfolded proteins in the cell?

They are either refolded or destroyed by proteasomes

What is the term for the process of copying DNA genetic information onto a molecule of RNA?

Transcription

What is the sequence of events in protein synthesis?

Transcription, translation, and then folding

What is the function of the genetic code?

To specify the order of amino acids in a protein

What is the term for the complete set of genetic instructions for an organism?

Genome

How do the nucleotides of one DNA strand interact with those in the other strand?

Through weak hydrogen bonds

What is the term for the process of protein synthesis on the ribosomes?

Translation

What is the primary function of the ribosome in protein synthesis?

To translate messenger RNA into a specific sequence of amino acids

What is the term for the sequence of three nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid in the genetic code?

Codon

What is the process by which the sequence of amino acids in a protein determines its 3D structure?

Protein folding

What is the relationship between the genetic code and the sequence of amino acids in a protein?

Degenerate

What is the role of the start codon in protein synthesis?

To initiate translation

What is the term for the sequence of amino acids that make up a protein?

Primary structure

Test your understanding of DNA structure, genetic code, and its role in protein synthesis, as well as the connection to cellular level processes in human anatomy and physiology. This quiz covers topics from Chapter 4 of HOLE'S ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY, Fourteenth Edition. Take this quiz to assess your knowledge of the molecular basis of life.

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