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Explain the functions of the skin as the largest organ of the body.

The skin regulates temperature, reflects disease processes in the body, and has a sensory function for detecting temperature changes.

Explain the use of topical applications in administering medicines to the skin.

Topical applications such as lotions, creams, gels, and ointments act as 'vehicles' for carrying substances into the skin, and can be used for anti-inflammatories and mild inflammatory conditions.

What are the indications for using anti-inflammatories in topical applications?

Anti-inflammatories in topical applications are used for mild inflammatory conditions requiring anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, but should not be used on broken skin.

How would you treat eczema and its symptoms?

Eczema is treated by identifying and removing the cause, relieving symptoms, suppressing inflammation, and using moisturizers, topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, and antibiotics as needed.

What are the characteristics and treatment of psoriasis?

Psoriasis is a chronic disease of unknown cause, characterized by silvery scaly lesions occurring on most skin areas. Treatment involves using topical corticosteroids to reduce the inflammatory response, for example, Betamethasone.

Explain the use of NSAIDs in topical applications.

NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as Diclofenac/Voltaren can be used in topical applications for mild inflammatory conditions requiring anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.

What are the different types of skin preparations used as 'vehicles' for carrying substances into the skin?

Skin preparations such as lotions, creams, gels, and ointments are used as 'vehicles' for carrying substances into the skin.

Explain the use of topical bacteriocidals in the treatment of acne.

Topical bacteriocidals are used in the treatment of acne to kill bacteria on the skin's surface, particularly Proprionbacterium acnes, which is commonly associated with acne. By reducing the bacterial population, they help in reducing lesions and preventing scarring.

Describe the role of antihistamines in allergic skin conditions.

Antihistamines are used in allergic skin conditions to reduce the effects of histamine release from mast cells, which causes swelling, itching, and redness. By blocking histamine receptors, antihistamines help alleviate these symptoms.

Explain the importance of vitamin A in maintaining healthy skin.

Vitamin A is essential for maintaining healthy skin as it helps in the repair and maintenance of skin cells. It also supports the production of sebum, an oily substance that moisturizes the scalp and helps keep hair healthy.

Discuss the role of vitamin C in promoting healthy teeth and gums.

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is an antioxidant that promotes healthy teeth and gums by supporting the production of collagen, a protein necessary for the health of teeth, gums, and other connective tissues.

Explain the significance of vitamin D as the 'sunshine vitamin'.

Vitamin D is known as the 'sunshine vitamin' because the body can produce it with sun exposure. It is essential for maintaining strong and healthy bones, as it helps in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus.

Describe the role of vitamin K in blood coagulation.

Vitamin K is essential for blood coagulation, as it helps in the production of certain proteins necessary for the coagulation process. Without vitamin K, blood would not stick together properly.

Discuss the importance of folate for pregnant women.

Folate is crucial for pregnant women as it is needed for the production of DNA, which controls tissue growth and cell function. Low levels of folate are linked to birth defects such as spina bifida, making it essential for pregnant women to ensure an adequate intake.

Explain the role of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the body.

Thiamine, or vitamin B1, helps the body cells change carbohydrates into energy. It is particularly important during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as for heart function and healthy nerve cells.

Explain the role of vitamin E in the body as an antioxidant.

Vitamin E is an antioxidant that helps the body form red blood cells and use vitamin K. It also protects cells from damage caused by free radicals and is essential for immune function.

Discuss the functions of niacin (vitamin B3) in the body and its effects at higher doses.

Niacin is a B vitamin that helps maintain healthy skin and nerves. At higher doses, niacin has cholesterol-lowering effects.

Describe the importance of riboflavin (vitamin B2) in the body.

Riboflavin works with the other B vitamins and is important for body growth and the production of red blood cells.

Explain the significance of vitamin K in the process of blood coagulation.

Vitamin K is necessary for the production of certain proteins that help the blood to clot, preventing excessive bleeding.

Discuss the action and examples of anti-pruritics in aiding the healing process.

Anti-pruritics reduce the desire to scratch, aiding the healing process. Examples include calamine lotion, antihistamines, corticosteroids, and local anaesthetics.

Explain the role of cyclosporin in the treatment of acne.

Cyclosporin is used to suppress the immune system from overactivity, which can help in reducing acne lesions.

Discuss the role of vitamin C in promoting healthy teeth and gums, and its antioxidant properties.

Vitamin C promotes healthy teeth and gums, acts as an antioxidant, and helps the body absorb iron and maintain healthy tissue. It is also essential for wound healing.

Explain the use and examples of topical bacteriocidals in the treatment of acne.

Topical bacteriocidals, such as cetrimide, chlorhexidine, and benzoyl peroxide, are used to reduce acne lesions and prevent scarring.

Discuss the role of topical corticosteroids in the treatment of eczema.

Topical corticosteroids are used to suppress inflammation and relieve symptoms of eczema, such as redness, itching, and scaly eruptions.

Explain the significance of NSAID (Diclofenac/Voltaren) in topical applications.

NSAIDs like Diclofenac/Voltaren are used in topical applications for mild inflammatory conditions requiring anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. They should not be used on broken skin.

Describe the characteristics and treatment of psoriasis.

Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by silvery scaly lesions occurring on most skin areas. Treatment involves the use of topical corticosteroids to reduce the inflammatory response, such as Betamethasone.

Explain the indications for using anti-inflammatories in topical applications.

Anti-inflammatories in topical applications are indicated for mild inflammatory conditions requiring anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, but should not be used on broken skin.

Discuss the use of topical applications as 'vehicles' for carrying substances into the skin.

Topical applications such as lotions, creams, gels, and ointments act as 'vehicles' for carrying substances into the skin, allowing for the delivery of various medications and treatments.

Explain the characteristics and treatment of eczema.

Eczema is characterized by skin inflammation, redness, itching, and scaly eruptions. Treatment involves identifying and removing the cause, relieving symptoms, and suppressing inflammation using moisturizers, topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, and antibiotics for secondary infections.

Discuss the functions of the skin as the largest organ of the body.

The skin regulates temperature, reflects disease processes in the body, and has sensory functions such as temperature perception. It also serves as the first line of defense against external threats.

Study Notes

Skin Functions

  • Regulates temperature
  • Reflects disease processes in the body
  • Sensory function (e.g., temperature)
  • First line of defense

Topical Applications

  • Skin preparations act as "vehicles" for carrying substances into the skin
  • Examples: lotions, creams, gels, ointments
  • Anti-inflammatories:
    • Indications for use: mild inflammatory conditions requiring anti-inflammatory and analgesia
    • Should not be used on broken skin
    • Example: muscle pain from injury treated with menthol or camphor preparation (Deep heat)
    • NSAID (Diclofenac/Voltaren)

Skin Conditions

Eczema

  • Characterized by skin inflammation, redness, itching, and scaly eruptions
  • Treatment:
    • Identify and remove cause (e.g., wool, soaps, fragrances)
    • Relieve symptoms and suppress inflammation
    • Moisturizers
    • Topical corticosteroids
    • Antihistamines to relieve itch
    • Antibiotics to treat secondary infections

Psoriasis

  • Chronic disease of unknown cause
  • Autoimmune
  • Silvery scaly lesions occurring on most skin areas
  • Treatment:
    • Topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammatory response (e.g., Betamethasone)
    • Apply only to lesion
    • Cyclosporin to suppress immune system from overactivity

Acne

  • Disease of the sebaceous glands commonly associated with Proprionbacterium acnes
  • Treatment:
    • Topical bacteriocidals
    • Topical cleansers (e.g., cetrimide, chlorhexidine)
    • Topical benzoyl peroxide (Clearasil)
    • Antibiotics (creams and systemic preparations)

Anti-Pruritics

  • Action: Reduce the desire to scratch, aiding the healing process
  • Examples:
    • Calamine lotion (containing zinc oxide and iron oxide)
    • Antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine (Benadryl))
    • Corticosteroids (e.g., hydrocortisone topical cream)
    • Local anesthetics applied topically

Vitamins

Vitamin A

  • Helps form and maintain healthy teeth, bones, soft tissue, mucous membranes, and skin

Vitamin C

  • Antioxidant that promotes healthy teeth and gums
  • Helps the body absorb iron and maintain healthy tissue
  • Essential for wound healing

Vitamin D

  • Also known as the "sunshine vitamin"
  • Helps the body form red blood cells and use vitamin K
  • Can be produced by the body with 10-15 minutes of sunshine 3 times a week

Vitamin E

  • Antioxidant also known as tocopherol
  • Helps the body form red blood cells and use vitamin K
  • Important for bone health

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

  • Helps form red blood cells and maintain brain function

Vitamin B12

  • Important for metabolism
  • Helps form red blood cells and maintain the central nervous system

Niacin (B Vitamin)

  • Helps maintain healthy skin and nerves
  • Has cholesterol-lowering effects at higher doses

Folate

  • Works with vitamin B12 to help form red blood cells
  • Needed for the production of DNA, which controls tissue growth and cell function
  • Important for pregnant women to prevent birth defects (e.g., spina bifida)

Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

  • Helps the body cells change carbohydrates into energy
  • Essential for heart function and healthy nerve cells
  • Important during pregnancy and breastfeeding

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

  • Works with other B vitamins
  • Important for body growth and the production of red blood cells

Biotin

  • Essential for the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates, and in the production of hormones and cholesterol

Test your knowledge of administering and monitoring medicines and intravenous therapy with this quiz on HLTENN007. Learn about the functions of the skin and the use of topical applications in carrying substances into the skin. Practice and enhance your understanding of skin sensory functions and the role of the skin as the body's first line of defense.

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