Histology of the Central Nervous System Quiz

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150 Questions

Which type of neuron is most common in the nervous system?

Multipolar neurons

In which part of a neuron are the nucleus and organelles located?

Cell body (perikaryon or soma)

Which type of neuron comprises the sensory neurons of the retina, the olfactory epithelium, and the inner ear?

Bipolar neurons

Which type of cells have short processes and provide support and protection to neurons?

Glial cells

What is the primary function of pseudounipolar neurons?

Sensory perception near the CNS

Which cells line the ventricles and produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?

Ependymal cells

What is the primary role of oligodendrocytes in the nervous system?

Producing myelin

Which cells protect the brain from infection and injury through phagocytosis?

Microglia

What is the main function of astrocytes in the brain?

Maintaining tight junctions and metabolic support for neurons

What is the primary function of the choroid plexus in the ventricles?

Producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

What is the primary function of microglia in the central nervous system?

Phagocytosis to protect the brain from infection and injury

Which part of the neuron is specialized to receive stimuli from other neurons?

Dentrites

Which type of neuron has one axon and two or more dendrites?

Multipolar neurons

What is the differential distribution of myelin in the central nervous system responsible for?

The differential distribution of white matter and gray matter

Which part of the nervous system comprises the nerve fibers, ganglion, white matter, and gray matter?

Peripheral nervous system

What is the main function of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system?

Production of myelin sheath around axons

What is the primary role of astrocytes in the central nervous system?

Support and protection of neurons

Which type of neuron comprises the sensory neurons of the retina, the olfactory epithelium, and the inner ear?

Bipolar neurons

In which part of a neuron are the nucleus and organelles located?

Cell body (perikaryon or soma)

What is the primary function of ependymal cells in the central nervous system?

Production of cerebrospinal fluid

What is the primary function of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system?

Production of myelin sheath around axons

What is the main function of satellite cells in peripheral ganglia?

Support and protection of neurons

Which cells are responsible for producing myelin and myelinating multiple axons in the Central Nervous System?

Oligodendrocytes

What is the primary function of the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) in the Central Nervous System?

Controlling the passage of substances into the CNS

Which cells line the ventricles and play a role in producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the Central Nervous System?

Ependymal cells

What is the main function of astrocytes in the brain?

Maintaining tight junctions and metabolic support for neurons

What is the primary role of microglia in the Central Nervous System?

Protecting the brain from infection and injury through phagocytosis

What is the function of the Choroid Plexus in the ventricles of the brain?

Producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

What is the main component of gray matter in the brain and spinal cord?

Nerve fibers, glia, and blood vessels

What is the primary function of pseudounipolar neurons?

Sensory information transmission to the CNS

What is the main function of oligodendrocytes in the nervous system?

Producing myelin and myelinating multiple axons

What cells are primarily responsible for maintaining tight junctions and providing metabolic support for neurons?

Astrocytes

What is the primary function of ependymal cells in the central nervous system?

Synthesizing and secreting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Which cells are responsible for producing myelin and myelinating multiple axons in the Central Nervous System?

Oligodendrocytes

What is the primary role of microglia in the Central Nervous System?

Protecting the brain from infection and injury through phagocytosis

What is the differential distribution of myelin in the central nervous system responsible for?

Differences in white and gray matter

What is the primary function of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system?

Producing myelin for nerve fibers

In which part of a neuron are the nucleus and organelles located?

Cell body (perikaryon or soma)

What is the main function of satellite cells in peripheral ganglia?

Maintaining tight junctions and providing metabolic support for neurons

What is the main function of oligodendrocytes in the nervous system?

Producing myelin for nerve fibers

What is the primary role of astrocytes in the central nervous system?

Maintaining tight junctions and providing metabolic support for neurons

Which type of neuron comprises the sensory neurons of the retina, the olfactory epithelium, and the inner ear?

Bipolar neurons

What is the primary function of satellite cells in peripheral ganglia?

Maintaining tight junctions and providing metabolic support for neurons

What is the primary function of oligodendrocytes in the nervous system?

Producing myelin and myelinating multiple axons

Which part of the nervous system comprises the nerve fibers, ganglion, white matter, and gray matter?

Central Nervous System (CNS)

What is the primary function of astrocytes in the brain?

Maintaining tight junctions and metabolic support

What is the main function of pseudounipolar neurons?

Receiving stimuli from other neurons

What is the primary role of microglia in the Central Nervous System?

Protecting the brain from infection and injury through phagocytosis

What is the main function of ependymal cells in the central nervous system?

Producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Which type of neuron comprises the sensory neurons of the retina, the olfactory epithelium, and the inner ear?

Bipolar neurons

What is the differential distribution of myelin in the central nervous system responsible for?

Rapid conduction of nerve impulses

What is the primary function of satellite cells in peripheral ganglia?

Maintaining structural support and regulating microenvironment in ganglia

Which cells protect the brain from infection and injury through phagocytosis?

Microglia

What is the main component of gray matter in the brain and spinal cord?

Abundant nerve fibers, glia, and blood vessels

What is the primary function of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system?

Producing myelin and myelinating multiple axons

What is the main function of satellite cells in peripheral ganglia?

Supporting and protecting neurons

Which type of neuron comprises the sensory neurons of the retina, the olfactory epithelium, and the inner ear?

Bipolar neurons

What is the primary function of microglia in the central nervous system?

Protecting the brain from infection and injury through phagocytosis

What is the differential distribution of myelin in the central nervous system responsible for?

The differences in white and gray matter

Where are the nucleus and organelles located in a neuron?

In the cell body (perikaryon or soma)

What is the primary role of astrocytes in the central nervous system?

Maintaining tight junctions and providing metabolic support for neurons

What is the main function of ependymal cells in the central nervous system?

Lining the ventricles and playing a role in producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

What is the main component of gray matter in the brain and spinal cord?

Dendrites

What is the main function of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system?

Producing myelin and myelinating multiple axons

What is the primary function of pseudounipolar neurons?

Generating and conducting nerve impulses to other cells

Which cells in the central nervous system produce myelin and myelinate many axons?

Oligodendrocytes

What is the main function of the choroid plexus in the ventricles of the brain?

Producing CSF and removing water from blood

What is the primary role of astrocytes in the central nervous system?

Maintaining tight junctions and metabolic support

What is the main component of gray matter in the brain and spinal cord?

Pia mater

Where are the nucleus and organelles located in a neuron?

Soma (cell body)

'White matter' in the brain and spinal cord is primarily composed of which cells?

Oligodendrocytes

What is the primary function of ependymal cells in the central nervous system?

Producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

What do microglia primarily do to protect the brain from infection and injury?

Phagocytosis

What is the primary role of oligodendrocytes in the nervous system?

Produce myelin and myelinate multiple axons

What is the main function of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system?

Producing myelin and myelinating multiple axons

What is the primary role of astrocytes in the central nervous system?

Maintaining tight junctions and metabolic support

What is the primary function of ependymal cells in the central nervous system?

Producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Which cells are primarily responsible for maintaining tight junctions and providing metabolic support for neurons?

Astrocytes

'White matter' in the brain and spinal cord is primarily composed of which cells?

Oligodendrocytes

What is the main component of gray matter in the brain and spinal cord?

Nerve fibers

Which part of a neuron is specialized to receive stimuli from other neurons?

Dendrite

'Pseudounipolar' neurons are primarily associated with which part of the nervous system?

Peripheral nervous system

Which type of neuron comprises the sensory neurons of the retina, the olfactory epithelium, and the inner ear?

Pseudounipolar neurons

What is the function of the Choroid Plexus in the ventricles of the brain?

Producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Where are the nucleus and organelles located in a neuron?

Cell body

What is the primary function of microglia in the central nervous system?

Protecting the brain from infection and injury through phagocytosis

Which type of neuron is most common in the nervous system?

Multipolar neurons

What is the main function of satellite cells in peripheral ganglia?

Surrounding neuron cell bodies and providing support and protection

Where are the nucleus and organelles located in a neuron?

Cell body (perikaryon or soma)

What is the main component of gray matter in the brain and spinal cord?

Neurons

What cells are primarily responsible for maintaining tight junctions and providing metabolic support for neurons?

Astrocytes

What is the primary role of oligodendrocytes in the nervous system?

Myelinating multiple axons

What is the differential distribution of myelin in the central nervous system responsible for?

Promoting efficient nerve impulse conduction

What is the primary function of satellite cells in peripheral ganglia?

Surrounding neuron cell bodies and providing support and protection.

What is the main function of ependymal cells in the central nervous system?

Producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

What is the main function of pseudounipolar neurons?

Generating and conducting nerve impulses to other cells.

Neurons have many long ______

processes

Glial cells have short ______

processes

The functional unit in both the CNS and PNS is the ______

neuron

Cell body (perikaryon or soma) contains the nucleus and ______

organelles

Dentrites are specialized to receive stimuli from other ______

neurons

Axon is a single long process ending at synapses specialized to generate and conduct nerve impulses to other ______

cells

Multipolar neurons have one axon and two or more ______

dendrites

Bipolar neurons comprise the sensory neurons of the retina, the olfactory epithelium, and the inner ______

ear

Pseudounipolar neurons have one process, the axon, that divides close to the cell body into two long axonal ______

branches

The shape of the neurone and its ______

processes

The differential distribution of myelin in the central nervous system is responsible for these ______

differences

The main parts of a neuron are the cell body (perikaryon or soma), ______, and axon

dentrites

Gray matter (______) is a thin layer with abundant nerve fibers, glia, and blood vessels.

pia mater

White matter (______) is a protective layer made of fibrous tissue and collagen.

dura mater and arachnoid layer

Cerebrospinal fluid (______) fills the brain ventricles and spinal cord, providing mechanical and immunological protection.

CSF

Lumbar puncture is a medical procedure to collect ______ for diagnostic testing.

CSF

Astrocytes are the largest neuroglial cells, helping neurons by maintaining tight junctions and metabolic support.

astrocytes

Oligodendrocytes produce myelin, and one cell myelinates many axons.

oligodendrocytes

Microglia are phagocytic cells, protecting the brain from infection and injury.

microglia

Ependymal cells line the ventricles and produce CSF.

ependymal cells

Blood-brain barrier (______) is a functional barrier that tightly controls the passage of substances into the CNS.

BBB

Choroid plexus in the ventricles produces CSF and removes water from blood.

choroid plexus

The ______ consists of white matter and gray matter, with the cortex being highly convoluted.

cerebrum

The ______ contains various neuronal and glial cells, including Betz's pyramidal cells, capillaries, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia.

cerebral cortex

What is the approximate length of the spinal cord?

40-45 cm

Where does the spinal cord sometimes terminate?

At the level of intervertebral disc between L2 & L3

What is the weight of the spinal cord?

30 grams

What structure does the lower part of the filum terminale attach to?

Dorsum of the coccyx

What does the filum terminale provide a connection for?

Stabilizing the vertebral column

To which structure is the spinal cord continuous superiorly?

Medulla oblongata

What is formed by the inferior part of the spinal cord?

Medullary cone

Which artery is the largest ant. segmental medullary artery?

Artery of Adamkiewicz

Where do the ascending branches from the tributaries supply the conus medullaris arise from?

Lumbar arteries

Which veins run behind the nerve roots and end in the intervertebral veins?

Lateral segmental veins

Which veins form an anastomotic network along the surface of the spinal cord?

Radicular veins

Where does the external vertebral venous plexus consist of ant. & post. plexuses which anastomose freely with each other?

On post. surfaces of vertebral arches

Where does the ant & post internal vertebral venous plexus also empty into?

Dural venous sinuses

Where does the arterial vasocorona form around the spinal cord?

Along the surface of spinal cord

Which vein runs along the post median sulcus?

'Posterior spinal vein – median longitudinal'

'Valveless' veins situated in the pia mater form an anastomotic network along which surface of spinal cord?

'Lateral aspect'

Which of the following statements about the spinal cord blood supply is correct?

Anterior spinal artery originates from the segmental spinal arteries

What is the main characteristic of the grey matter in the spinal cord?

It is related to the amount of white matter present at any given level

Which statement accurately describes the spinal nerves' attachment to the spinal cord?

Spinal nerves are united as ventral and dorsal roots, attached to the sides of the spinal cord

What is the composition of the white matter in the spinal cord?

Divided into anterior, posterior, and medial funiculi

What is the function of the spinal ganglia in the dorsal spinal roots?

Serve as a site for synapse formation between sensory and motor neurons

How do spinal nerves penetrate the dura in relation to the intervertebral foramen?

The dura becomes continuous with the epineurium of peripheral nerves

What differentiates rostral regions of the spinal cord from caudal regions?

Rostral regions have more white matter due to accumulated ascending fibers

What is the primary function of the filum terminale in the spinal cord?

To anchor the spinal cord to the end of the dural sac

Which layer of the spinal meninges is continuous with the cranial dura mater at the cranial end?

Dura mater

What is the primary function of the epidural space in the spinal cord?

To provide a site for anesthetic injections

What is the primary role of the denticulate ligaments in the spinal cord?

To allow the spinal cord to 'float' in the spinal canal

What is the name of the structure that contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and extends throughout the length of the spinal cord?

Central canal

Which sulcus runs laterally from the posterior median sulcus on each side of the spinal cord?

Posteriorolateral sulcus

Where is the central canal located in relation to the spinal cord along its length?

It varies in location, being situated nearer the anterior aspect at cervical and thoracic segments and in the posterior third at conus medullaris

Study Notes

  • Pseudounipolar neurons are primarily sensory neurons near the Central Nervous System (CNS).

  • Brain and spinal cord are covered by three protective membranes called meninges.

  • The brain and spinal cord are made up of gray matter and white matter.

  • Gray matter (pia mater) is a thin layer with abundant nerve fibers, glia, and blood vessels.

  • White matter (dura mater and arachnoid layer) is a protective layer made of fibrous tissue and collagen.

  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fills the brain ventricles and spinal cord, providing mechanical and immunological protection.

  • Lumbar puncture is a medical procedure to collect CSF for diagnostic testing.

  • Astrocytes are the largest neuroglial cells, helping neurons by maintaining tight junctions and metabolic support.

  • Oligodendrocytes produce myelin, and one cell myelinates many axons.

  • Microglia are phagocytic cells, protecting the brain from infection and injury.

  • Ependymal cells line the ventricles and produce CSF.

  • Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a functional barrier that tightly controls the passage of substances into the CNS.

  • Choroid plexus in the ventricles produces CSF and removes water from blood.

  • The cerebrum consists of white matter and gray matter, with the cortex being highly convoluted.

  • The cerebral cortex contains various neuronal and glial cells, including Betz's pyramidal cells, capillaries, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia.

  • The cerebellum's white matter forms a branched tree-like structure.

  • The Purkinje layer is an intermediate layer in the cerebellum with large Purkinje cells and tree-like dendritic arborizations.

  • Pseudounipolar neurons are primarily sensory neurons near the Central Nervous System (CNS).

  • Brain and spinal cord are covered by three protective membranes called meninges.

  • The brain and spinal cord are made up of gray matter and white matter.

  • Gray matter (pia mater) is a thin layer with abundant nerve fibers, glia, and blood vessels.

  • White matter (dura mater and arachnoid layer) is a protective layer made of fibrous tissue and collagen.

  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fills the brain ventricles and spinal cord, providing mechanical and immunological protection.

  • Lumbar puncture is a medical procedure to collect CSF for diagnostic testing.

  • Astrocytes are the largest neuroglial cells, helping neurons by maintaining tight junctions and metabolic support.

  • Oligodendrocytes produce myelin, and one cell myelinates many axons.

  • Microglia are phagocytic cells, protecting the brain from infection and injury.

  • Ependymal cells line the ventricles and produce CSF.

  • Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a functional barrier that tightly controls the passage of substances into the CNS.

  • Choroid plexus in the ventricles produces CSF and removes water from blood.

  • The cerebrum consists of white matter and gray matter, with the cortex being highly convoluted.

  • The cerebral cortex contains various neuronal and glial cells, including Betz's pyramidal cells, capillaries, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia.

  • The cerebellum's white matter forms a branched tree-like structure.

  • The Purkinje layer is an intermediate layer in the cerebellum with large Purkinje cells and tree-like dendritic arborizations.

  • Pseudounipolar neurons are primarily sensory neurons near the Central Nervous System (CNS).

  • Brain and spinal cord are covered by three protective membranes called meninges.

  • The brain and spinal cord are made up of gray matter and white matter.

  • Gray matter (pia mater) is a thin layer with abundant nerve fibers, glia, and blood vessels.

  • White matter (dura mater and arachnoid layer) is a protective layer made of fibrous tissue and collagen.

  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fills the brain ventricles and spinal cord, providing mechanical and immunological protection.

  • Lumbar puncture is a medical procedure to collect CSF for diagnostic testing.

  • Astrocytes are the largest neuroglial cells, helping neurons by maintaining tight junctions and metabolic support.

  • Oligodendrocytes produce myelin, and one cell myelinates many axons.

  • Microglia are phagocytic cells, protecting the brain from infection and injury.

  • Ependymal cells line the ventricles and produce CSF.

  • Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a functional barrier that tightly controls the passage of substances into the CNS.

  • Choroid plexus in the ventricles produces CSF and removes water from blood.

  • The cerebrum consists of white matter and gray matter, with the cortex being highly convoluted.

  • The cerebral cortex contains various neuronal and glial cells, including Betz's pyramidal cells, capillaries, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia.

  • The cerebellum's white matter forms a branched tree-like structure.

  • The Purkinje layer is an intermediate layer in the cerebellum with large Purkinje cells and tree-like dendritic arborizations.

  • Pseudounipolar neurons are primarily sensory neurons near the Central Nervous System (CNS).

  • Brain and spinal cord are covered by three protective membranes called meninges.

  • The brain and spinal cord are made up of gray matter and white matter.

  • Gray matter (pia mater) is a thin layer with abundant nerve fibers, glia, and blood vessels.

  • White matter (dura mater and arachnoid layer) is a protective layer made of fibrous tissue and collagen.

  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fills the brain ventricles and spinal cord, providing mechanical and immunological protection.

  • Lumbar puncture is a medical procedure to collect CSF for diagnostic testing.

  • Astrocytes are the largest neuroglial cells, helping neurons by maintaining tight junctions and metabolic support.

  • Oligodendrocytes produce myelin, and one cell myelinates many axons.

  • Microglia are phagocytic cells, protecting the brain from infection and injury.

  • Ependymal cells line the ventricles and produce CSF.

  • Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a functional barrier that tightly controls the passage of substances into the CNS.

  • Choroid plexus in the ventricles produces CSF and removes water from blood.

  • The cerebrum consists of white matter and gray matter, with the cortex being highly convoluted.

  • The cerebral cortex contains various neuronal and glial cells, including Betz's pyramidal cells, capillaries, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia.

  • The cerebellum's white matter forms a branched tree-like structure.

  • The Purkinje layer is an intermediate layer in the cerebellum with large Purkinje cells and tree-like dendritic arborizations.

  • Pseudounipolar neurons are primarily sensory neurons near the Central Nervous System (CNS).

  • Brain and spinal cord are covered by three protective membranes called meninges.

  • The brain and spinal cord are made up of gray matter and white matter.

  • Gray matter (pia mater) is a thin layer with abundant nerve fibers, glia, and blood vessels.

  • White matter (dura mater and arachnoid layer) is a protective layer made of fibrous tissue and collagen.

  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fills the brain ventricles and spinal cord, providing mechanical and immunological protection.

  • Lumbar puncture is a medical procedure to collect CSF for diagnostic testing.

  • Astrocytes are the largest neuroglial cells, helping neurons by maintaining tight junctions and metabolic support.

  • Oligodendrocytes produce myelin, and one cell myelinates many axons.

  • Microglia are phagocytic cells, protecting the brain from infection and injury.

  • Ependymal cells line the ventricles and produce CSF.

  • Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a functional barrier that tightly controls the passage of substances into the CNS.

  • Choroid plexus in the ventricles produces CSF and removes water from blood.

  • The cerebrum consists of white matter and gray matter, with the cortex being highly convoluted.

  • The cerebral cortex contains various neuronal and glial cells, including Betz's pyramidal cells, capillaries, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia.

  • The cerebellum's white matter forms a branched tree-like structure.

  • The Purkinje layer is an intermediate layer in the cerebellum with large Purkinje cells and tree-like dendritic arborizations.

  • Pseudounipolar neurons are primarily sensory neurons near the Central Nervous System (CNS).

  • Brain and spinal cord are covered by three protective membranes called meninges.

  • The brain and spinal cord are made up of gray matter and white matter.

  • Gray matter (pia mater) is a thin layer with abundant nerve fibers, glia, and blood vessels.

  • White matter (dura mater and arachnoid layer) is a protective layer made of fibrous tissue and collagen.

  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fills the brain ventricles and spinal cord, providing mechanical and immunological protection.

  • Lumbar puncture is a medical procedure to collect CSF for diagnostic testing.

  • Astrocytes are the largest neuroglial cells, helping neurons by maintaining tight junctions and metabolic support.

  • Oligodendrocytes produce myelin, and one cell myelinates many axons.

  • Microglia are phagocytic cells, protecting the brain from infection and injury.

  • Ependymal cells line the ventricles and produce CSF.

  • Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a functional barrier that tightly controls the passage of substances into the CNS.

  • Choroid plexus in the ventricles produces CSF and removes water from blood.

  • The cerebrum consists of white matter and gray matter, with the cortex being highly convoluted.

  • The cerebral cortex contains various neuronal and glial cells, including Betz's pyramidal cells, capillaries, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia.

  • The cerebellum's white matter forms a branched tree-like structure.

  • The Purkinje layer is an intermediate layer in the cerebellum with large Purkinje cells and tree-like dendritic arborizations.

  • The spinal cord consists of several structures, including the conus medullaris, cauda equina, filum terminale, and spinal meninges.

  • The conus medullaris is a medullary cone located at the end of the spinal cord, while the cauda equina is a collection of nerve roots that continue beyond the termination of the spinal cord.

  • The filum terminale is a long, thin tissue that extends from the conus medullaris to the coccyx and serves to anchor the spinal cord to the end of the dural sac.

  • The spinal cord is surrounded and protected by three connective tissue coverings: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.

  • The dura mater is the thickest and strongest of the three layers, serving as a durable protective covering for the spinal cord. It is continuous with the cranial dura mater at the cranial end and joins the filum terminale at the caudal end.

  • The arachnoid mater is a thin, transparent layer that forms a spider-web like structure around the spinal cord. It carries blood vessels and separates the spinal cord from the dura mater.

  • The pia mater is the innermost layer of the spinal meninges, which adheres closely to the surface of the spinal cord. It terminates at the inferior limit of the spinal cord and contains the central canal, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and extends throughout the length of the cord.

  • The epidural space is a potential space located between the outermost layer of the spinal meninges (dura mater) and the walls of the vertebral canal. It contains loose connective and adipose tissue and serves as a site for anesthetic injections.

  • The denticulate ligaments are double folds of pia mater that extend from the lateral aspects of the cord, penetrate the arachnoid, and attach to the inner surface of the dura. They allow the cord to "float" in the spinal canal and alternate with the points of exit of nerve roots.

  • The central canal, also known as the ependymal canal, is a continuous structure filled with CSF that extends throughout the length of the spinal cord. It helps transport nutrients to the cord and protects it by cushioning against impact.

  • The spinal cord contains several fissures and sulci that divide it into right and left halves. The anterior median fissure is a deep longitudinal fissure, while the posterior median sulcus is a shallow furrow. The spinal cord is joined by a commissural band of tissue that contains the central canal.

  • The posteriorolateral sulcus is a sulcus that runs laterally from the posterior median sulcus on each side of the spinal cord.

  • The size and shape of the central canal varies along the length of the spinal cord, with it being situated nearer the anterior aspect at the cervical and thoracic segments and in the center at the lumbar segments. In the conus medullaris, it is located in the posterior third and is lined by ciliated, columnar epithelium.

  • The central canal, also known as the terminal ventricle or the ampulla caudalis, is a structure located at the transition from the tip of the conus medullaris to the origin of the filum terminale. It is a fusiform, widest part of the central canal that is visible in newborns and up to 5 years of age, but regresses during the first weeks after birth.

  • The spinal cord contains several fissures and sulci that divide it into right and left halves. The anterior median fissure is a deep longitudinal fissure, while the posterior median sulcus is a shallow furrow. The spinal cord is joined by a commissural band of tissue which contains the central canal. The posteriorolateral sulcus is a sulcus that runs laterally from the posterior median sulcus on each side of the spinal cord.

Test your knowledge of the histology of the central nervous system with this quiz. Explore the anatomy and different components including nerve cells, glial cells, cerebrum, spinal cord, nerve fibers, and more.

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