Hearing and Auditory Perception Part 3: Introduction and Human Ear

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22 Questions

The Pinna gathers sound and conducts it through the external canal to the inner ear.

False

The malleus, incus, and stapes are parts of the middle ear.

True

The cochlea is responsible for converting sound waves to mechanical vibrations.

False

Hair cells along the basilar membrane serve to convert neural activity to motion.

False

The auditory nerve conducts neural signals from the cochlea to the brain.

True

Central processing in the brain involves only uniform spectral analysis.

False

The perceived loudness of a tone is directly related to its sound pressure level.

True

The threshold of audibility is the sound pressure level at which a tone can no longer be heard by an adult with normal hearing.

False

Low frequencies must be less intense than frequencies in mid-range to be perceived.

False

Equal-loudness-level contours show that the auditory system is most sensitive to high frequencies above 6KHz.

False

A 100Hz tone must have a sound pressure level of about 50 dB to be perceived equal in loudness to a 1KHz tone with a sound pressure level of 60 dB.

False

The basilar membrane performs uniform frequency analysis through a set of bandpass filters.

False

Bandpass filters in the cochlea have a constant effective bandwidth of 200Hz for center frequencies below 500 Hz.

False

The formula to calculate the critical bandwidth delta fc is: $\delta f_c = 25 + 75[1 + 1.4( f_c / 1000) ^ 2]^{0.69}$

True

Critical bands play a significant role in pitch perception, loudness perception, and masking.

True

Pitch is a subjective attribute of sound and not a physical attribute of acoustic waveform.

True

The relationship between pitch (mel-scale) and frequency of a pure tone is linear.

False

At frequencies above 1kHz, the pitch scale becomes nearly linear.

False

A critical band of width 100 Hz centered on 350 Hz maps into a band of width 107 mels.

True

Auditory masking occurs when loud tones cause weak vibrations at a point on the basilar membrane.

False

Noise can only mask other noise, and pure tones can only mask other pure tones.

False

Masking effect is more pronounced for frequencies below the masking frequency than above it.

False

Study Notes

The Human Auditory System

  • The Pinna collects sound waves and directs them through the external canal to the inner ear.

Middle Ear Structure

  • The middle ear contains three parts: the malleus, incus, and stapes.

Sound Conversion in the Cochlea

  • The cochlea converts sound waves to mechanical vibrations.
  • Hair cells along the basilar membrane convert neural activity to motion.

Neural Signal Transmission

  • The auditory nerve transmits neural signals from the cochlea to the brain.

Central Processing in the Brain

  • Central processing in the brain involves uniform spectral analysis.

Sound Perception

  • The perceived loudness of a tone is directly related to its sound pressure level.
  • The threshold of audibility is the sound pressure level at which a tone can no longer be heard by an adult with normal hearing.
  • Low frequencies must be less intense than frequencies in mid-range to be perceived.

Auditory Sensitivity

  • The auditory system is most sensitive to high frequencies above 6KHz.
  • A 100Hz tone must have a sound pressure level of about 50 dB to be perceived equal in loudness to a 1KHz tone with a sound pressure level of 60 dB.

Basilar Membrane Function

  • The basilar membrane performs uniform frequency analysis through a set of bandpass filters.
  • Bandpass filters in the cochlea have a constant effective bandwidth of 200Hz for center frequencies below 500 Hz.

Critical Bandwidth

  • The formula to calculate the critical bandwidth delta fc is: $\delta f_c = 25 + 75[1 + 1.4( f_c / 1000) ^ 2]^{0.69}$

Critical Bands and Perception

  • Critical bands play a significant role in pitch perception, loudness perception, and masking.
  • Pitch is a subjective attribute of sound and not a physical attribute of acoustic waveform.
  • The relationship between pitch (mel-scale) and frequency of a pure tone is linear.
  • At frequencies above 1kHz, the pitch scale becomes nearly linear.

Auditory Masking

  • Auditory masking occurs when loud tones cause weak vibrations at a point on the basilar membrane.
  • Noise can only mask other noise, and pure tones can only mask other pure tones.
  • Masking effect is more pronounced for frequencies below the masking frequency than above it.

This quiz covers the introduction to Hearing and Auditory Perception, including models presented, the perception side of the speech chain, and utilizing human perception to create digital representations of speech signals. It also discusses the structure of the human ear, including the outer ear. Date of relevance: Saturday, February 3, 2024.

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