Health Expectancies and Health Gaps

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30 Questions

What percentage of mortality is attributed to raised blood pressure globally?

13%

How many deaths annually are attributed to insufficient physical activity?

1.6 million

What is the probability of dying from major NCDs in Nigeria?

20%

How many Nigerians above 15 years old smoke tobacco?

Over 4 million

What percentage of heavy smokers are at risk of developing CVD?

9.6%

What is the leading metabolic risk factor globally?

Elevated blood pressure

What is the estimated number of deaths attributed to physical inactivity?

1.6 million

How many minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity are recommended for adults per week?

150 minutes

What percentage of deaths are attributed to alcohol consumption?

3.3%

What is the recommended daily amount of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity for children and youth aged 5–17?

60 minutes

What is the term used to describe measures that combine information on mortality and morbidity of health outcomes?

Summary measures of population health

What is the term used to describe the health of a particular population as a single number?

Summary measure of population health

What is the primary purpose of health gaps in measuring population health?

To measure the difference between actual population health and some specified norm or goal

What does the Sullivan Index measure?

The difference between actual population health and some specified norm or goal

What is the formula for calculating Disability Free Life Expectancy (DFLE)?

DFLE = Life Expectancy - Duration of Disability & Inability to perform major activities

What is the primary focus of Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy (QALE)?

Assessing the quality of life of a population

What is the expected outcome of increasing average life expectancy?

An increase in sickness

What is the primary consideration of a summary measure of population health?

Considering both quality and quantity of life

What is the basis of Health Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE) calculation?

Life expectancy at birth with an adjustment for time spent in poor health

What does DALY measure?

Both years lost due to premature mortality and years lost to disability

What is the formula for calculating DALY?

DALY = YLL + YLD

What is the purpose of using DALY as a measure?

All of the above

What is the difference between HALE and DALY?

HALE measures equivalent years of full health, while DALY measures the burden of disease

What is the term for the number of years of healthy life lost due to all causes?

Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY)

What is the primary advantage of using life expectancy at age of death in year?

Deaths at all ages contribute to the calculation of the burden of disease

What is the most difficult component to estimate in epidemiological studies?

Disability incidence

What is the formula for calculating YLD?

I x D x W x L

What is the utility of deafness in the example provided?

0.67

What is the primary objective of using HeaLY?

All of the above

What is the key to controlling the global epidemics of NCDs?

Primary prevention based on comprehensive population-wide programmes

Study Notes

Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)

  • Non-modifiable risk factors include genetic factors, age, sex, race, and family history.

Modifiable Risk Factors

  • Tobacco use: accounts for about 7.2 million deaths every year
  • Unhealthy diet: high salt intake contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk, high consumption of saturated fats linked to heart disease
  • Physical inactivity: accounts for 1.6 million deaths annually
  • Harmful use of alcohol: accounts for 3.3% of all deaths
  • Raised blood pressure: leading metabolic risk factor globally, accounting for 18% of deaths
  • Raised blood glucose
  • Abnormal blood lipids
  • Overweight and obesity

Health Expectancies and Disease Burden

  • Health expectancies: measures that combine information on mortality and morbidity to represent the health of a population
  • Disability-free life expectancy (DFLE): the difference between life expectancy and the sum of probable duration of bed disability and inability to perform major activities
  • Quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE): increases with average life expectancy, but considers quality of life
  • Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE): based on life expectancy at birth, adjusted for time spent in poor health
  • Disability-adjusted life expectancy (DALE): average number of years lived in full health, considering years lived in less than full health
  • Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs): measure of health gap, combining years of life lost and years lived with disability

DALY Calculation

  • YLL (years of life lost) and YLD (years lived with disability)
  • DALY = YLL + YLD
  • Epidemiological estimates required for YLD calculation, including incidence, duration, age of onset, and distribution by severity class

Surveillance as a Tool for NCD Control

  • Primary prevention based on comprehensive population-wide programs is key to controlling NCD epidemics
  • Surveillance is essential for controlling NCDs, and includes primary prevention strategies

Quiz on health expectancies and health gaps, including concepts such as disability-free life expectancy, disability-adjusted life years, and healthy life years.

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