Grade 9 Science: Neuron and Nervous System Vocabulary

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14 Questions

A neuron is a specialized cell that helps you gather, interpret, and react to information about your ______

environment

The region of a neuron that receives impulses from other neurons and conducts them to the cell body is called ______

dendrite

Neurotransmitter is a chemical that diffuses across a synapse and binds to receptors on the dendrite of a neighboring ______

cell

Drugs that slow down the central nervous system are called ______

depressant

What is the function of a neurotransmitter?

It diffuses across a synapse and binds to receptors on the dendrite of a neighboring cell.

Define the term 'threshold' in the context of neurons.

The minimum stimulus required to cause an action potential to be produced.

Explain the role of rods in the visual system.

Rods are light-sensitive cells that are excited by low levels of light.

What is the significance of the node in the myelin sheath along the length of an axon?

The node allows for the faster conduction of nerve impulses along the axon.

Describe the process of addiction, both psychologically and physiologically.

Addiction involves both psychological and physiological dependence on a drug.

What is the function of the node in the myelin sheath along the length of an axon?

Insulate and speed up the conduction of nerve impulses

Explain the process of addiction, both psychologically and physiologically.

Psychological and physiological dependence on a drug

What are depressant drugs and how do they affect the central nervous system?

Drugs that slow down the central nervous system

Describe the function of neurotransmitter in neuronal communication.

Diffuses across a synapse and binds to receptors on the dendrite of a neighboring cell

How do rods contribute to the visual system?

Excited by low levels of light

Study Notes

Neuron Structure and Function

  • A neuron is a specialized cell that helps gather, interpret, and react to information about the environment.
  • The dendrite region of a neuron receives impulses from other neurons and conducts them to the cell body.

Neurotransmitters and Synapse

  • Neurotransmitters are chemicals that diffuse across a synapse and bind to receptors on the dendrite of a neighboring neuron.
  • The function of a neurotransmitter is to transmit signals between neurons.

Nervous System and Drugs

  • Depressant drugs slow down the central nervous system.
  • Depressant drugs affect the central nervous system by slowing down neural activity.

Neural Signaling and Threshold

  • The threshold is the minimum strength of an impulse required to trigger an action potential in a neuron.

Visual System and Rods

  • Rods are specialized photoreceptors in the retina that contribute to the visual system by detecting low light levels.
  • Rods are sensitive to low light levels and are essential for peripheral and night vision.

Myelin Sheath and Node

  • The node is a gap in the myelin sheath along the length of an axon that allows for rapid saltatory conduction of action potentials.
  • The function of the node in the myelin sheath is to facilitate the rapid transmission of action potentials along the axon.

Addiction and Neural Processes

  • Addiction is a complex process that involves both psychological and physiological changes in the brain.
  • Psychological factors contributing to addiction include craving and motivation, while physiological factors include changes in neural circuits and synaptic plasticity.
  • The process of addiction involves long-term changes in gene expression, neural circuits, and synaptic strength, leading to compulsive drug-seeking behavior.

Test your knowledge of neuron and nervous system vocabulary with this quiz. Explore terms such as dendrite, axon, neurotransmitter, and more.

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