Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) Overview

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20 Questions

Which autoimmune disorder is characterized by a butterfly, malar rash as one of its symptoms?

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

Which autoimmune disorder has a female to male ratio of 10:1 and is associated with dry mouth and dry eyes as prominent symptoms?

Sjogren Syndrome

Which autoimmune disorder has a higher risk of miscarriages, blood clots, and strokes as a result of hematologic manifestations?

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

Which autoimmune disorder is associated with the development of lymphoma or vasculitis in some cases?

Sjogren Syndrome

Which autoimmune disorder involves joint pain without physical deformities, often exacerbated by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light?

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

Which condition is characterized by vasospasm of blood vessels in response to stress, cold temperatures, and underlying conditions?

Raynaud phenomenon

Which autoimmune disease targets melanocytes and is most common in the Asian population?

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease

What is recommended to decrease vasoconstriction in Raynaud phenomenon?

All of the above

Which condition is associated with bilateral granulomatous panuveitis and exudative/serous retinal detachments?

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease

Which condition can be associated with ulceration of the fingers and toes?

Raynaud phenomenon

Which autoimmune vasculitis mainly affects the skin, lungs, and kidneys?

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA)

Which autoimmune vasculitis is characterized by sudden onset of severe pain and stiffness in the shoulders, hip, and neck, worse in the morning?

Polymyalgia Rheumatica

Which autoimmune vasculitis causes lesions in the lungs, respiratory tract, kidneys, and skin, with symptoms such as rhinorrhea, sinusitis, and hearing loss?

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA)

Which autoimmune vasculitis primarily affects blood vessels of all sizes and is characterized by recurrent, painful mucocutaneous ulcers and recurrent iritis?

Behcet Disease

Which autoimmune vasculitis is more common in East Asians and Mediterranean males aged 20-40 years and is associated with oral and genital ulcers?

Behcet Disease

Which of the following is NOT a common symptom of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)?

Bilateral granulomatous panuveitis

What is the average age of onset for Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)?

75 years

Which artery is mainly affected by inflammation and occlusion in Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)?

External carotid artery

What is the female to male ratio in patients with Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)?

3:1

Which of the following is a potential complication of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)?

Blindness

Study Notes

Autoimmune Disorders

  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by a butterfly, malar rash as one of its symptoms, with a female to male ratio of 10:1, and is associated with dry mouth and dry eyes as prominent symptoms.
  • SLE has a higher risk of miscarriages, blood clots, and strokes as a result of hematologic manifestations.
  • Cutaneous lupus erythematosus involves joint pain without physical deformities, often exacerbated by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light.

Vasculitis and Vasospasm

  • Raynaud phenomenon is characterized by vasospasm of blood vessels in response to stress, cold temperatures, and underlying conditions, and can be managed by avoiding cold temperatures and reducing stress to decrease vasoconstriction.
  • Wegener's granulomatosis is associated with bilateral granulomatous panuveitis and exudative/serous retinal detachments.

Autoimmune Vasculitis

  • Churg-Strauss syndrome is associated with ulceration of the fingers and toes, and affects the skin, lungs, and kidneys.
  • Microscopic polyangiitis mainly affects blood vessels of all sizes and is characterized by recurrent, painful mucocutaneous ulcers and recurrent iritis.
  • Behçet's disease primarily affects blood vessels of all sizes, is more common in East Asians and Mediterranean males aged 20-40 years, and is associated with oral and genital ulcers.

Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)

  • GCA is not characterized by symptoms of weight loss and is most common in people over 50 years old, with an average age of onset of 70 years.
  • The temporal artery is mainly affected by inflammation and occlusion in GCA, with a female to male ratio of 3:1.
  • Potential complications of GCA include blindness, strokes, and aortic aneurysms.
  • Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease that targets melanocytes and is most common in the Asian population.

This quiz provides an overview of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), also known as temporal arteritis, covering its pathophysiology, common associations, and demographics.

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