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Genetic Improvement in Livestock and Artificial Insemination Quiz

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25 Questions

What is a common reason for selecting IVF over ET in livestock?

It can be used in animals that are poor responders to superovulation

What is the primary purpose of Estimated Breeding Values (EBVs) for livestock?

Predictions of an animal's genetic merit for specific traits

Which factor plays a crucial role in ensuring AI occurs at the optimal time relative to ovulation?

Oestrous Synchronisation techniques

In the context of reproductive technologies, what does embryo transfer (ET) primarily aim to achieve?

Maximizes the genetic potential of high-performing females

Which technology focuses on predicting genetic merit for specific traits in livestock?

Estimated Breeding Values (EBVs)

What is the main difference between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) in livestock breeding?

IVF involves fertilizing the egg outside the body, while ET involves transferring the fertilized embryo into a surrogate mother

What are Estimated Breeding Values (EBVs) used for in livestock breeding?

To predict the future performance of an animal based on its genetic makeup

Which factor is most important for determining the optimal timing for artificial insemination (AI) in livestock?

The stage of the oestrous cycle and ovulation

Why might commercial producers be less inclined to adopt reproductive technologies like AI and ET?

These technologies are too expensive for commercial operations

What is the purpose of oestrous synchronization in sheep breeding?

To align the oestrous cycles of a group of ewes for easier breeding management

What is the primary difference between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) technologies?

IVF involves fertilizing eggs outside the body, while ET involves transferring embryos into the uterus

What is the primary advantage of using Estimated Breeding Values (EBVs) in livestock breeding?

EBVs provide an estimate of an animal's genetic merit for specific traits

What is the optimal time for artificial insemination (AI) in cattle?

During the late stage of estrus, when the cow is standing to be mounted

Why might commercial producers be hesitant to use reproductive technologies extensively?

The high costs and complex implementation of these technologies

What is the primary purpose of estrous synchronization in sheep?

To align the estrous cycles of a group of ewes for breeding

In the context of reproductive technologies, what is the key difference between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET)?

IVF involves fertilizing an egg outside the body, while ET involves transferring a fertilized embryo into the uterus.

For a commercial beef producer aiming to improve carcass quality, which Estimated Breeding Value (EBV) would be most relevant?

Intramuscular Fat EBV

In sheep breeding programs, what is the optimal timing for artificial insemination (AI) relative to the onset of estrus?

24-36 hours after the onset of estrus

Which of the following statements about oestrous synchronization in commercial cattle production is true?

It allows for a more concentrated calving season, which can improve management efficiency.

In the anatomy of a sheep's uterus, which structure is responsible for producing progesterone to maintain pregnancy?

Corpus luteum

What is the primary difference between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) in livestock production?

IVF involves fertilizing eggs outside the animal, while ET involves transferring an embryo into a surrogate mother

What are Estimated Breeding Values (EBVs) used for in livestock breeding programs?

To predict the genetic merit of an animal for specific traits

Which factor is most important when determining the optimal timing for artificial insemination (AI) in livestock?

The detection of the animal's estrous cycle or heat period

For commercial producers with large herds or flocks, what is a potential advantage of using reproductive technologies like AI or ET over natural mating?

Reduced labor requirements and increased efficiency

What is the purpose of oestrous synchronization in sheep breeding programs?

To ensure that all ewes are bred at the same time

Study Notes

Factors Affecting AI Programs

  • The music played to animals during insemination does not affect the outcome of AI programs.

Embryo Transfer (ET)

  • ET maximizes the genetic potential of high-performing females.
  • ET is used to maximize genetic gain in livestock.

Comparison of IVF and ET

  • IVF is selected over ET in cases where animals are poor responders to superovulation.

Estimated Breeding Values (EBVs)

  • EBVs are predictions of an animal's genetic merit for specific traits.

Artificial Insemination (AI)

  • AI contributes to genetic improvement in livestock by enabling mating between animals that are physically separated.
  • Semen quality is a key factor that can affect the outcome of AI programs.
  • AI allows access to elite or unique genetics.

Reproductive Technologies

  • The primary goal of using assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in the Australian livestock industry is to increase genetic gain and reproductive efficiency.
  • The use of reproductive technologies can lead to accelerated genetic gain within herds and flocks.

Ethical Consideration

  • Balancing genetic gain with animal welfare is an ethical consideration associated with the use of reproductive technologies in agriculture.

Oestrous Cycle

  • Heat detection and timing insemination accordingly induces ovulation during a sheep's oestrous cycle.
  • Luteinising Hormone (LH) is crucial for inducing ovulation.
  • The corpus luteum on the ovary of a sheep is responsible for producing progesterone to maintain pregnancy.

FSH

  • FSH initiates the development of follicles on the ovary.

EBVs for Beef Production

  • Intramuscular Fat EBV is prioritized when selecting a beef bull for breeding to improve the marbling score of future offspring.
  • 200-Day Weight EBV is most relevant to increasing the weaning weight of calves to enhance early growth rates.

Australian Agricultural Industry

  • The Australian agricultural industry contributes AUD 47 billion to the economy.

Test your knowledge on genetic improvement in livestock and the role of artificial insemination in contributing to genetic gain. Learn about strategies for maximizing genetic gain, managing small herds or flocks, and improving specific genetic traits.

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