Gene Expression Control in Eukaryotic Cells

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Which of the following is a mechanism for regulating eukaryotic gene expression in the nucleus?

Alternative splicing

What is the function of histone acetyltransferases in chromatin remodeling?

They add acetyl groups to histone tails

Which of the following is true about microRNAs (miRNAs)?

They are small noncoding RNA molecules

What is the role of ubiquitin in protein stability regulation?

It marks proteins for destruction

Which of the following is a function of the iron regulatory protein (IRP)?

It blocks ribosome binding

What is the role of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) in gene expression regulation?

It inhibits translation and degrades mRNA

Which of the following is a true statement about alternative splicing?

It generates different proteins from a single gene

What is the function of the glucocorticoid receptor in gene expression regulation?

It binds to the regulatory sequence of genes

How do histone deacetylases affect chromatin structure?

They remove acetyl groups from histone tails

What is the role of the GTP cap on the 5' end of mRNA in gene expression regulation?

If the cap is modified, mRNA is not translated

Which of the following is a method used to identify all mRNAs expressed in certain conditions?

Microarray analysis

What do yellow spots on a DNA microarray indicate?

Equal expression of genes in both conditions

Which of the following is true about the TCA (Krebs) cycle genes?

They are used for ethanol catabolism

Which of the following is true about eukaryotic gene expression control?

Transcriptional control is the most common control point.

What is the purpose of direct sequencing of cDNAs made from mRNA?

To measure gene expression levels

What percentage of genes does a typical cell express?

~20-50%

What is the role of general transcription factors in gene expression?

To assemble preinitiation complexes

Which of the following is true about differentiated cells?

Differentiated cells contain all the genetic information to form a complete organism.

Which type of regulatory protein binds to DNA to switch genes on/off?

Repressor proteins

How can we determine which genes are expressed in certain conditions?

Identifying all mRNAs found in certain conditions using DNA chips (microarrays).

What is the main function of enhancer regions in gene regulation?

To stimulate transcription

What does the intensity of red or green binding to a DNA chip spot indicate?

The number of mRNAs expressed from a specific gene.

In bacterial gene regulation, what happens when the concentration of tryptophan is low?

Genes making enzymes in the tryptophan pathway are expressed

Which of the following is true about the control of gene expression in the human neuron and liver cell?

They have the same genome but express different RNAs and proteins.

How does eukaryotic gene activation occur at a distance?

Through looping of DNA between enhancer and promoter regions

What is the most common control point in eukaryotic gene expression?

Transcriptional control.

What is the effect of acetyl groups on chromatin structure?

They attract proteins that promote transcription

How can a cell change the expression of its genes in response to external signals?

By altering transcriptional control.

What is the purpose of DNA chips (microarrays) in determining gene expression?

To identify all mRNAs found in certain conditions.

What do yellow spots on a DNA chip indicate?

mRNAs from both cells expressed.

Test your knowledge on the control of gene expression in eukaryotic cells with this quiz. Explore the various steps involved in gene expression, including transcriptional control, and how cells can change gene expression in response to external signals.

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