Gender-Based Violence (GBV) Overview

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33 Questions

Which of the following is a societal norm that contributes to gender-based violence?

Acceptance of violence as a way of resolving conflict

What is a potential fatal outcome of gender-based violence?

Maternal mortality

Which of the following is a community-level factor that contributes to gender-based violence?

All of the above

What is a potential physical health consequence of gender-based violence?

Physical injury

Which of the following is a mental health consequence of gender-based violence?


What is a consequence of VAW on health systems?

Interference with healthcare

Who should punish perpetrators of VAW to deter others?

Law enforcers (police & judiciary)

What is a strategy for preventing VAW?

Public enlightenment and education

What is a type of VAW mentioned in the text?

All of the above

What should healthcare providers do to support victims of VAW?

Ask about VAW and provide support

What role should governments and NGOs play in preventing VAW?

Creating policies to protect women's rights

In which region of Nigeria do women tend to marry at the earliest age?

North West

What is the primary cause of Vesicovaginal Fistula (VVF)?

Prolonged obstructed labor

What is the difference in the age of marriage between women with no education and those with a secondary education?

6 years

What percentage of women in West Africa are married by the age of 18 years?

20% - 50%

What is the term for marriage carried out below the age of 18 years?

Child marriage

What is the difference in the age of marriage between women in the lowest wealth quintile and those in the highest quintile?

8 years or more

What is the primary reason why gender-based violence (GBV) is considered a significant threat to women's health and wellbeing?

Because it increases women's long-term risk of physical and reproductive health problems

What is the definition of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)?

Any behaviour within a present or former intimate relationship that leads to physical, sexual or psychological harm

What is the percentage of women in Nigeria who have experienced physical violence since age 15?


What is a risk factor for GBV?

Women's subordinate position in society

What is an example of physical violence against women?

Beating or hitting

What is the term used to describe the selective malnourishment of female children?

Selective malnourishment of female children

What is a type of violence that is commonly experienced by women during the reproductive phase of their life cycle?

Abuse of women by intimate partners

What is the Ecological Model of factors associated with partner abuse?

A model that considers individual, relationship, and societal factors

What is the percentage of women in Nigeria who have experienced sexual violence at some time in their life?


What is a type of GBV that involves the use of weapon or acid?

Physical violence

What percentage of obstructed labor cases in Nigeria are due to hospital procedures?


What is the primary cause of obstructed labor in Nigeria?

Obstructed labor

What is the recommended practice for all deliveries?

All of the above

What is the purpose of the 'Gishiri cut'?

To remove blockage of the birth canal

What is a distal factor contributing to obstructed labor?

Reproductive and healthcare-seeking behavior

What is an example of a geographical factor affecting access to healthcare?

Place of residence (urban/rural)

Study Notes

GBV Overview

  • Gender-based violence (GBV) is a major public health and human rights problem worldwide, posing a significant threat to women's health and wellbeing.
  • Prevalence of GBV varies by region and is often culturally specific.

Definition of GBV

  • GBV refers to harmful behaviors directed at women and girls because of their sex.
  • Includes wife abuse, sexual assault, dowry-related murder, marital rape, forced prostitution, selective malnourishment of female children, female genital mutilation, and sexual abuse of female children.

Types of GBV

  • Physical: beating, hitting, slapping, pushing, punching, throwing objects/acid, using weapons.
  • Sexual: unsolicited touching, harassment, attempted rape, rape, sexual slavery.
  • Psychological: intimidation, relegation, abuse, curses, control, isolation.
  • Economic: exploitation, cheating, underpaying, confiscating goods, depriving or stopping source of livelihood.
  • HTPs (Harmful Traditional Practices): forced/early marriage, FGM/C, dowry-related violence, forced labor.

Violence Against Women

  • Physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, economic violence, and HTPs.
  • Types of violence experienced by women at various phases of life:
    • Prenatal: prenatal sex selection, battering during pregnancy, coerced pregnancy.
    • Infancy: female infanticide, emotional and physical abuse, differential access to food and medical care.
    • Childhood: genital cutting, incest, sexual abuse, differential access to food, medical care, and education.
    • Adolescence: dating and courtship violence, economically coerced sex, sexual abuse in the workplace.
    • Reproductive: abuse of women by intimate partners, marital rape, dowry abuse, and murder.
    • Old age: abuse of widows, elder abuse.

Prevalence of IPV in Nigeria

  • 28% of women aged 15-49 have experienced physical violence since age 15.
  • 11% experienced physical violence in the 12 months preceding the survey.
  • 7% of women aged 15-49 reported experiencing sexual violence at some time in their life.
  • 25% of married women aged 15-49 experienced physical, emotional, or sexual violence.

Risk Factors for GBV

  • Women's subordinate position in society.
  • Unequal power relations between men and women.
  • Cultural beliefs and norms.
  • Patriarchal values system.
  • Prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and low status of women in society.
  • Some aspects of statutory, customary, and religious provisions make women vulnerable to violence.

Ecological Model of Factors Associated with Partner Abuse

  • Individual: being male, witnessing marital violence as a child, absent or rejecting father, being abused as a child, alcohol use.
  • Relationships: parents, siblings, other family, friends, and peers.
  • Community: religious groups, school, service providers, etc.
  • Society: norms granting men control over female behavior, acceptance of violence, rigid gender roles.

Consequences of GBV

  • Health consequences: non-fatal outcomes, fatal outcomes, homicide, suicide, maternal mortality, AIDS, physical health, mental health, reproductive health, low self-esteem, unwanted pregnancy, substance abuse, STIs/HIV, gynaecological disorders, unsafe abortion, pregnancy complications, miscarriage, and LBW.
  • Interference with health care: delayed health care, burden on health system.

Prevention of GBV

  • Multiple stakeholders: general population, parents, law enforcers, health care providers, education, media, practitioners, FBOs, community leaders, policy makers, governments, and NGOs.
  • Strategies: public enlightenment, good role models, punishment for perpetrators, informed health care providers, support for victims, education, inclusion in school and health institution curriculum, sensitization, reduction of violence on TV, discussion of VAW, support for the oppressed, policies to protect women's rights, shelter for the oppressed.

Harmful Traditional Practices (HTPs)

  • Early marriage: any marriage carried out below the age of 18 years, before the girl is physically, physiologically, and psychologically ready for marriage and childbearing.
  • Factors contributing to early marriage: historical, religious, cultural, economic, and sociological.
  • Rural women aged 25-49 marry at younger ages than their urban counterparts.
  • Women in the NW marry at an earlier age than those in the SE.
  • Women with no education marry 6 years earlier than women with a secondary education.
  • Women in the lowest wealth quintile marry more than 8 years earlier than women in the highest quintile.

Obstetric Fistula

  • Definition: abnormal connection between the urinary bladder and the vagina or rectum and vagina.
  • Factors contributing to OF: immediate cause (prolonged obstructed labor), intermediate cause (reproductive and health care seeking behavior), and distant factors (socio-cultural, economic, and geographical factors).
  • National recommendation: all deliveries should be supervised by a skilled birth attendant, each labor should be monitored using a partograph, and every woman should have access to emergency obstetric care services.

This quiz covers the definitions, types, risk factors, consequences, and prevention of Gender-Based Violence (GBV), a major public health and human rights problem worldwide.

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