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## Questions and Answers

What is the purpose of cluster sampling in market research?

What is the distribution of all possible values of a statistic from all possible samples of a particular size drawn from a population?

What is the standard deviation of the distribution of the sample means?

What is the term for the variability in observed means due to chance error in the sampling process?

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What is the purpose of calculating the mean of each sample in a sampling distribution?

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What does the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of means measure?

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What is the term for the distribution of all possible samples of a particular size drawn from a population?

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Why is cluster sampling preferred over simple random sampling?

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What is the term for the standard deviation of the distribution of the sample proportions?

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What is the purpose of calculating the standard error of the mean?

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## Study Notes

### Frequency Distribution

- Frequency refers to the number of occurrences of a value in a given series of observations.
- Frequency distribution is a table that organizes data by showing the values of a variable with their corresponding frequencies.
- The left column of a frequency distribution table includes numerical intervals of a variable under study, while the right column contains the list of frequencies.
- Class-limits or class-intervals are formed within two values, with the lower value being the lower class limit and the upper value being the upper class limit.

### Class Length or Class Width

- The difference between the upper and lower class limits is called the class length or class width.
- Class length/width = Upper class limit â€“ Lower class limit.

### Mid-Value or Class Mark

- The mid-point of a class is called the mid-value or class mark.

### Frequency Density

- Frequency density of a class interval = Class frequency / Width of class.

### Continuous Frequency Distribution

- A continuous frequency distribution is a type of frequency distribution where the variable takes values expressed in class intervals within certain limits.
- Example: Marks obtained by 20 students in an exam for 50 marks can be converted into a continuous frequency distribution.

### Sampling

- Sampling is a process used in statistical analysis where a predetermined number of observations are taken from a larger population.
- The methodology used to sample from a larger population depends on the type of analysis being performed.

### Types of Sampling

- There are two methods of selecting from populations: non-random or judgment sampling, and random or probability sampling.
- Random sampling is a probability sampling method that utilizes some form of random selection to assure equal probabilities of being chosen.

### Sampling Distribution

- The sampling distribution is the distribution of all possible values of a statistic from all possible samples of a particular size drawn from the population.
- Each sample drawn from a population would have its own means or measure of central tendency and standard deviation.

### Standard Error

- The standard deviation of the distribution of the sample means is called the standard error of the mean.
- The standard error of the proportion is the standard deviation of the distribution of the sample proportions.
- The standard error measures the extent to which the means vary due to chance error in the sampling process.

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## Description

Learn about frequency, frequency distribution and how to represent data in a table with corresponding frequencies. Understand the concept of frequency distribution in statistics.