12_Reproductive System

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Which of the following is a homologue of the clitoris in males?

Penis

Which of the following is NOT a function of the reproductive system?

Production of blood cells

What are the primary sex organs called?

Gonads

Which of the following is NOT a part of the female external genitalia?

Mon Pubis

What is the function of the ovaries in the female reproductive system?

Production of ova (eggs)

Which of the following is NOT a function of gonads?

Production of blood cells

What are the sex cells produced by the ovaries called?

Oocytes

What is the average length of the ovarian cycle?

28 days

Which hormones are most important in the female reproductive system?

Estrogen and progesterone

What happens to the secondary oocyte if it is not penetrated by sperm?

It breaks down after 24 hours

At what stage does the blastocyst implant into the uterus?

After reaching the 3-week stage

What is the role of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the male reproductive system?

Activation of the gonads at puberty

Which structure in the male reproductive system is responsible for the production of new spermatids?

Seminiferous tubules

Where does the maturation of spermatids into sperm occur?

Epididymis

Which structure in the male reproductive system is responsible for propelling sperm out of the body during ejaculation?

Ductus deferens

What is the composition of semen?

95% seminal fluids and 5% sperm

Which structure in the male reproductive system secretes an alkaline, milky fluid to nourish sperm, liquefy semen, and fight urinary tract infections?

Prostate gland

What causes an erection in the penis?

Blood flowing into the central artery and venous spaces

Which of the following is true about the ovarian follicle?

It consists of an oocyte and supporting cells.

Which of the following is NOT a phase of the uterine cycle?

Ovulation

Where does fertilization of the oocyte usually occur?

Fallopian tubes

What is the function of the mucin-secreting glands in the cervix?

To create a mucus plug to prevent pathogens from entering the uterus

What is the function of the vagina?

To serve as an exit from the uterus during menses and childbirth

What is the role of the areolar glands in the breasts?

To secrete breast milk into lactiferous ducts

Which muscles regulate the temperature of the testes?

Dartos and cremaster muscles

Where do the blood vessels and nerves to the testes travel through?

Spermatic cord

What is the main symptom of ectopic pregnancy?

Severe cramping

What is the main cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)?

Hormonal changes

What is the recommended age for men to undergo a digital rectal exam?

Over 50 years of age

What is the main treatment for prostate cancer?

Radiotherapy or surgical removal of the prostate gland

True or false: The primary sex organs in the female reproductive system are called ovaries.

True

True or false: The gonads in the male reproductive system produce sperm.

True

True or false: Fertilization occurs when the chromosomes from sperm and oocyte combine to form a complete set of chromosomes.

True

True or false: The zygote is called a blastocyst when it reaches a solid ball of 16 cells.

False

True or false: Sexual differentiation in humans occurs during the 6th week of embryonic life.

True

True or false: The presence of the SRY gene on the Y chromosome determines sexual differentiation.

True

True or false: The SRY gene can be determined by a genetic test before week 10 of pregnancy.

True

True or false: The hypothalamus and pituitary gland activate the gonads to produce sex hormones and develop gametes during puberty.

True

True or false: The female perineum includes the urethral, vaginal, and anal orifices.

True

True or false: The male perineum includes the penis and anal orifice.

False

True or false: The ovaries are held in place by ligaments called mesovarium, broad ligament, suspensory ligament, and ovarian ligament.

True

True or false: The ovarian cycle is usually a 28-day cycle and is regulated by hormones.

True

True or false: The follicle grows and develops, resulting in ovulation in every cycle.

True

True or false: At puberty, a few primordial follicles become primary follicles with thicker layers of cells in each cycle.

True

True or false: Per cycle, only one tertiary follicle can develop to ovulation, the rest undergo breakdown.

True

True or false: The uterine tubes are also called Fallopian tubes.

True

True or false: The uterus supports and protects the developing embryo/fetus.

True

True or false: The vagina functions as an exit from the uterus during menses and childbirth.

True

True or false: The scrotum is a highly pigmented, muscular sack that regulates the temperature of the testes.

True

True or false: Ectopic pregnancy occurs when the zygote implants in the uterus instead of the fallopian tube.

False

True or false: Both ovarian and cervical cancer cause vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain.

True

True or false: Prostate cancer is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland.

False

True or false: The main treatment for prostate cancer is radiotherapy.

True

True or false: The ovaries are the primary sex organs in the female reproductive system.

True

True or false: The testes hang exteriorly in the scrotum to keep the temperature of the testes 3ºC below body temperature.

True

True or false: Spermatogenesis starts at puberty and takes 64 days to complete.

True

True or false: Spermatozoa are 85,000 times smaller than the ovum.

True

True or false: The ductus deferens is lined with pseudostratified epithelium and very thick smooth muscles in the walls to propel sperm out of the body during ejaculation.

True

True or false: Semen is composed of 95% sperm and 5% seminal fluids secreted from the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands.

False

True or false: The glans penis contains the urethral orifice.

True

Study Notes

Reproductive System Overview

  • Primary sex organs in females are called ovaries.
  • Primary sex organs in males are called testes.

Male Reproductive System

  • The glans penis contains the urethral orifice.
  • The scrotum is a highly pigmented, muscular sack that regulates the temperature of the testes.
  • The testes hang exteriorly in the scrotum to keep the temperature of the testes 3ºC below body temperature.
  • Spermatogenesis starts at puberty and takes 64 days to complete.
  • Spermatozoa are 85,000 times smaller than the ovum.
  • The ductus deferens is lined with pseudostratified epithelium and very thick smooth muscles in the walls to propel sperm out of the body during ejaculation.
  • Semen is not composed of 95% sperm and 5% seminal fluids; instead, it is composed of seminal fluids secreted from the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands, with a small percentage of sperm.

Female Reproductive System

  • The ovaries are held in place by ligaments called mesovarium, broad ligament, suspensory ligament, and ovarian ligament.
  • The ovarian cycle is usually a 28-day cycle and is regulated by hormones.
  • At puberty, a few primordial follicles become primary follicles with thicker layers of cells in each cycle.
  • Per cycle, only one tertiary follicle can develop to ovulation, the rest undergo breakdown.
  • The uterine tubes are also called Fallopian tubes.
  • The uterus supports and protects the developing embryo/fetus.
  • The vagina functions as an exit from the uterus during menses and childbirth.
  • The mucin-secreting glands in the cervix nourish sperm and liquefy semen.
  • The areolar glands in the breasts produce milk for lactation.

Hormones and Development

  • The hypothalamus and pituitary gland activate the gonads to produce sex hormones and develop gametes during puberty.
  • Sexual differentiation in humans occurs during the 6th week of embryonic life.
  • The presence of the SRY gene on the Y chromosome determines sexual differentiation.
  • The SRY gene can be determined by a genetic test before week 10 of pregnancy.

Pregnancy and Cancer

  • Ectopic pregnancy occurs when the zygote implants in the fallopian tube, not the uterus.
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland.
  • The main treatment for prostate cancer is not radiotherapy.
  • Both ovarian and cervical cancer can cause vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain.

Test your knowledge of folliculogenesis and the development of ovarian follicles with this informative quiz. Explore the stages of follicle growth, from primordial to tertiary follicles, and understand the process of ovulation. Challenge yourself and enhance your understanding of this crucial aspect of reproductive biology.

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