## Questions and Answers

What is the primary purpose of a manometer?

What is the mathematical representation of the force exerted by a fluid?

What is the name of the device used to calculate fluid speed based on static and stagnation pressure?

What is the flow regime characterized by a Reynolds number between 2300 and 4000?

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What is the definition of a fluid?

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What is the name of the law that states the pressure at a point in a fluid is independent of direction?

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What is the primary component of major loss in a pipe system?

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What is the fundamental principle of Newtonian fluids?

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What is the term for the resultant force in the direction of the upstream velocity?

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What is the term for the experimental observation that a fluid 'sticks' to solid boundaries?

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What is the name of the equation that relates the pressure, velocity, and elevation of a fluid?

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What is the type of flow characterized by smooth layers of fluid particles?

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What is the ratio of the velocity of a fluid to the velocity of sound in that fluid?

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What is the reciprocal of the density of a fluid?

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What is the force exerted by a column of liquid?

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What is the term for a negative gage pressure?

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## Study Notes

### Fluid Mechanics

- Fluid: a substance that deforms continuously under the application of a shear stress, no matter how small the shear stress may be.
- Deals with the behavior of fluids at rest and in motion.
- Basic laws:
- Conservation of mass
- Newton's second law of motion
- Principle of angular momentum
- First law of thermodynamics
- Second law of thermodynamics

### Types of Fluids

- Newtonian Fluids: fluids whose shearing stress is linearly related to the rate of shearing strain (common fluids).
- Non-Newtonian Fluids: fluids whose shearing stress is not linearly related to the rate of shearing strain.
- Compressible Fluids: fluids in which variations in density are negligible.
- Incompressible Fluids: fluids in which variations in density are not negligible.
- No-slip condition: fluid "sticks" to solid boundaries.

### Types of Flow

- Laminar Flow: fluid particles move in smooth layers.
- Turbulent Flow: fluid particles rapidly mix as they move along due to random three-dimensional velocity fluctuations.
- Inviscid Flow: frictionless flow.
- Viscous Flow: flow affected by friction.
- Internal Flow: flow completely bounded by solid surfaces.
- External Flow: flow over bodies submerged in an unbounded fluid.

### Fluid Compressibility

- Mach Number: ratio of the velocity of a fluid to the velocity of sound in that fluid.

### Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight

- Specific volume (𝜈): volume per unit mass and is therefore the reciprocal of the density.
- Specific weight: weight per unit volume.
- Specific gravity: ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water at some specified temperature.

### Fluid Statics

- Hydrostatic Pressure: pressure exerted by a column of liquid.
- Buoyancy Force: resultant force acting on a submerged body.
- Suction or Vacuum Pressure: negative gage pressure.

### Pressure Measurements

- Measurement of atmospheric pressure is usually accomplished with a mercury barometer.
- Manometry: standard technique for measuring pressure involves the use of liquid columns in vertical or inclined tubes.
- Manometers: devices based on this technique.
- Piezometer Tube
- U-Tube Manometer
- Inclined-Tube Manometer

### Archimedes' Principle and Pascal's Law

- Archimedes' Principle: resultant fluid force acting on a body is called the buoyant force.
- Pascal's Law: pressure at a point in a fluid at rest, or in motion, is independent of direction as long as there are no shearing stresses present.

### Fluid Dynamics

- Bernoulli Equation: relates pressure, velocity, and elevation of a fluid.
- Pressure Head
- Velocity Head
- Elevation Head

### Fluid Dynamics Measurements

- Pitot-Static tube: device used to calculate the fluid speed based on static and stagnation pressure.

### Fluid Dynamics Applications

- Free Jet velocity
- Confined flow-Volume flowrate (e.g., pipes)
- Mass flowrate
- Force exerted by Fluid: 𝐹 = 𝜌𝐴𝑣2
- Pipe Cross-section Area

### General Characteristics of Pipe Flow

- Reynolds number: ratio of a fluid's inertial forces to its viscous forces.
- Re < 2300: laminar flow
- Re > 4000: turbulent flow
- Re between 2300 and 4000: transitional flow

### Losses

- Major Loss: overall head loss for the pipe system due to viscous effects in the straight pipes.
- Minor Loss: head loss in the various pipe components.
- K is the loss coefficient.
- Drag Force: resultant force in the direction of the upstream velocity.
- Lift Force: resultant force normal to the upstream velocity.

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## Description

Test your knowledge of fluid mechanics, covering topics such as fluid behavior, laws, and principles. Learn about Newtonian fluids, conservation of mass, and thermodynamics.