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Fluid Mechanics Quiz

Created by
@ThrilledForest

Questions and Answers

What is the primary purpose of a manometer?

• To measure fluid velocity
• To measure fluid density
• To measure atmospheric pressure
• To measure pressure differences (correct)
• What is the mathematical representation of the force exerted by a fluid?

• F = ρAv^2 (correct)
• F = ρAv^3
• F = ρAv^4
• F = ρAv
• What is the name of the device used to calculate fluid speed based on static and stagnation pressure?

• Pitot-Static tube (correct)
• Barometer
• Manometer
• Pitot tube
• What is the flow regime characterized by a Reynolds number between 2300 and 4000?

<p>Transitional flow</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the definition of a fluid?

<p>A substance that deforms continuously under the application of a shear stress no matter how small the shear stress may be.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the law that states the pressure at a point in a fluid is independent of direction?

<p>Pascal's Law</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary component of major loss in a pipe system?

<p>Head loss due to viscous effects</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the fundamental principle of Newtonian fluids?

<p>The shearing stress is linearly related to the rate of shearing strain.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the resultant force in the direction of the upstream velocity?

<p>Drag force</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the experimental observation that a fluid 'sticks' to solid boundaries?

<p>No-slip condition</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the equation that relates the pressure, velocity, and elevation of a fluid?

<p>Bernoulli's Equation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the type of flow characterized by smooth layers of fluid particles?

<p>Laminar flow</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the ratio of the velocity of a fluid to the velocity of sound in that fluid?

<p>Mach number</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the reciprocal of the density of a fluid?

<p>Specific volume</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the force exerted by a column of liquid?

<p>Hydrostatic pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for a negative gage pressure?

<p>Suction or vacuum pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Fluid Mechanics

• Fluid: a substance that deforms continuously under the application of a shear stress, no matter how small the shear stress may be.
• Deals with the behavior of fluids at rest and in motion.
• Basic laws:
• Conservation of mass
• Newton's second law of motion
• Principle of angular momentum
• First law of thermodynamics
• Second law of thermodynamics

Types of Fluids

• Newtonian Fluids: fluids whose shearing stress is linearly related to the rate of shearing strain (common fluids).
• Non-Newtonian Fluids: fluids whose shearing stress is not linearly related to the rate of shearing strain.
• Compressible Fluids: fluids in which variations in density are negligible.
• Incompressible Fluids: fluids in which variations in density are not negligible.
• No-slip condition: fluid "sticks" to solid boundaries.

Types of Flow

• Laminar Flow: fluid particles move in smooth layers.
• Turbulent Flow: fluid particles rapidly mix as they move along due to random three-dimensional velocity fluctuations.
• Inviscid Flow: frictionless flow.
• Viscous Flow: flow affected by friction.
• Internal Flow: flow completely bounded by solid surfaces.
• External Flow: flow over bodies submerged in an unbounded fluid.

Fluid Compressibility

• Mach Number: ratio of the velocity of a fluid to the velocity of sound in that fluid.

Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight

• Specific volume (𝜈): volume per unit mass and is therefore the reciprocal of the density.
• Specific weight: weight per unit volume.
• Specific gravity: ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water at some specified temperature.

Fluid Statics

• Hydrostatic Pressure: pressure exerted by a column of liquid.
• Buoyancy Force: resultant force acting on a submerged body.
• Suction or Vacuum Pressure: negative gage pressure.

Pressure Measurements

• Measurement of atmospheric pressure is usually accomplished with a mercury barometer.
• Manometry: standard technique for measuring pressure involves the use of liquid columns in vertical or inclined tubes.
• Manometers: devices based on this technique.
• Piezometer Tube
• U-Tube Manometer
• Inclined-Tube Manometer

Archimedes' Principle and Pascal's Law

• Archimedes' Principle: resultant fluid force acting on a body is called the buoyant force.
• Pascal's Law: pressure at a point in a fluid at rest, or in motion, is independent of direction as long as there are no shearing stresses present.

Fluid Dynamics

• Bernoulli Equation: relates pressure, velocity, and elevation of a fluid.
• Pressure Head
• Velocity Head
• Elevation Head

Fluid Dynamics Measurements

• Pitot-Static tube: device used to calculate the fluid speed based on static and stagnation pressure.

Fluid Dynamics Applications

• Free Jet velocity
• Confined flow-Volume flowrate (e.g., pipes)
• Mass flowrate
• Force exerted by Fluid: 𝐹 = 𝜌𝐴𝑣2
• Pipe Cross-section Area

General Characteristics of Pipe Flow

• Reynolds number: ratio of a fluid's inertial forces to its viscous forces.
• Re < 2300: laminar flow
• Re > 4000: turbulent flow
• Re between 2300 and 4000: transitional flow

Losses

• Major Loss: overall head loss for the pipe system due to viscous effects in the straight pipes.
• Minor Loss: head loss in the various pipe components.
• K is the loss coefficient.
• Drag Force: resultant force in the direction of the upstream velocity.
• Lift Force: resultant force normal to the upstream velocity.

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Description

Test your knowledge of fluid mechanics, covering topics such as fluid behavior, laws, and principles. Learn about Newtonian fluids, conservation of mass, and thermodynamics.

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