Exploring Morality

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138 Questions

What concept did Alpha Go struggle with when tested on a smaller board?

Generalizing to other games

What was the key factor in Alpha Go's victory over world champion Lee Sedol?

Training with significantly more games than Lee Sedol

What approach did Google's DeepMind take to improve its software's performance?

Subtracting rules and biases

What type of reasoning involves making probabilistic generalizations from observation?

Inductive reasoning

When is risk present according to the text?

When future events occur with measurable probability

What does Expected Value Theory (EV) involve according to the text?

Calculating the expected value of various possible outcomes to determine the best course of action

What is the main difference between normative and descriptive decision making according to the text?

Normative is what you should do, descriptive is what you actually do

According to Expected Utility Theory (EUT), what does utility represent?

A subjective measure of happiness or satisfaction from an outcome

What does Homo economicus refer to in economic theories?

Individuals who act as 'perfectly rational' agents

What does Prospect Theory assume about the weighting of losses and wins?

Losses are weighted more than a win, leading to loss aversion

What does Diminishing Sensitivity imply in decision making?

Low probabilities are typically given more weight than they would receive using expected utility

Who are considered the fathers of behavioral economics, proposing theories like prospect theory?

Tversky & Kahneman

What does Theory of Mind involve?

Understanding and ascribing mental states to others, including false beliefs

What does Inverse Planning involve?

Going backwards from seeing an action to beliefs and desires

What does Gigerenzer emphasize in decision making?

The use of heuristics and good intuition

According to Dennett's theory of mind, how is an agent treated to determine their mental states?

As rational

What early signs of theory of mind development are shown by monkeys and infants?

Through their behavior and reactions

According to the text, which concept proposes that there is no metaphysical difference between humans and machines?

Dennett's argument

What concept is described as a fundamental aspect of human social cognition in the text?

Naïve utility calculus

According to the text, what are the two perspectives on emotion?

Experiencing and perceiving

What is the subject of the debate discussed in the text regarding emotions?

Whether emotions are innate or not

According to the text, what influences moral values and beliefs?

Families, communities, and societies

In the text, what is one of the different ways of perceiving emotions?

Theory of mind

What theory proposes that emotions are recognized in others through the recognition of one's own emotions?

Frank's Theory of Moral Sentiments

The text discusses the role of what type of anger in influencing behavior?

Moral anger

What does the text specifically mention about individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

The expression of emotions

According to the text, what does Frank's Theory of Moral Sentiments propose about emotions?

Their role in overcoming problems of defection and commitment

The text introduces the concept of 'constructing emotions' attributed to whom?

Lisa Feldman Barret

What is emphasized in the text as important in managing and understanding emotions?

Emotional intelligence

In the Dictator Game, what surprising behavior did humans exhibit?

Generosity in sharing resources

What is the purpose of the Third Party Punisher game?

To allow outside participants to punish dictators and enforce social norms

Why do smaller scale societies lack third party punishment?

Due to the absence of enforced norms

What contributes to the emergence of morality, according to the text?

A complex interaction of reasoning, emotion, theory of mind, and innate structure

Which theory proposes an innate brain structure guiding morality?

Contemporary theory

What do studies of morality in babies suggest?

An innate sense of morality and preference for helpers

What insight do ethical dilemma scenarios like the crying baby case provide?

Insight into different moral perspectives

According to Josh Greene's Dual Systems Theory of Moral Judgment, what influences moral judgment?

Emotional and rational systems

What does Comparative Cognition explore?

The study of cognition in other animal species and shared core cognitive abilities

What are the four broad approaches to morality mentioned in the text?

Virtue ethics, deontology, consequentialism, and contractualism

What do the Trolley problem and Footbridge problem elicit?

Different moral responses attributed to emotional influence

What do various iterations of the Dictator Game reveal?

Surprising human generosity and the use of punishment to deter cheaters

Which animal is capable of using tools and adapting them to better suit their purpose?

Crows

Which animals have distinct communication systems, using calls to represent semantics?

Vervet monkeys

Which figure is considered a pioneer in artificial intelligence?

John McCarthy

Which animals are capable of recognizing individual humans and differentiating between food and non-food items?

Octopuses

Which animals can associate words with specific objects and learn new words through fast mapping and exclusion?

Dogs

Which principle is responsible for unexplainable AI systems and their ability to find hidden patterns in data?

Deep learning

What is the term for a mathematical model representing a biological neuron, consisting of inputs fed into a mathematical function that outputs a specific value?

Perceptron

Which animal was able to learn how to open a box from observing others?

Octopus

Who co-authored the term 'artificial intelligence'?

John McCarthy

What method is used to adjust weights of each neuron in an AI to achieve more accurate results?

Backpropagation

What is the term for a group of neurons grouped together, all fed output from a previous group of neurons?

Hidden layers

Which animal showed evidence of 'fast mapping' by associating unfamiliar words with unfamiliar objects through exclusion?

Dog

What is the majority of an octopus' neurons located?

In its arms

What is the term for a complete specification of the state of the universe at time t?

Determinism

Which AI experiment was used to determine how a deep learning neural network recognized images using specific features?

Deep Dream

What is the term for the method of adjusting weights of each neuron in an AI to achieve more accurate results?

Backpropagation

Which animal was able to distinguish known words from unknown words in an acoustic signal, even when prosody is controlled?

Dog

Where was the term 'artificial intelligence' coined?

Dartmouth College

What is Alpha Zero trained on?

10,000,000 games

What did Google's DeepMind find happened to its software when rules were subtracted?

Performance improved

What was the result when Alpha Go was tested on a smaller board?

It performed worse than on a regular board

Which type of reasoning involves making probabilistic generalizations from observation?

Inductive reasoning

What type of decision making involves calculating the expected value of various possible outcomes to determine the best course of action?

Expected Value Theory (EV)

When is risk present according to the text?

When future events occur with measurable probability

What distinguishes normative decision making from descriptive decision making?

Normative decision making involves what you should do, while descriptive decision making involves what you actually do

What does the intentional strategy reliably predict?

The behavior of 'true believers'

At what age do humans start assuming that others make decisions to maximize utility?

Early childhood

What is the debate about regarding emotion?

Whether emotion is solely innate

What is emotional intelligence primarily concerned with?

Managing one's own emotions and understanding others'

What is involved in perceiving emotions, according to the text?

Abductive reasoning and theory of mind

What does emotional intelligence involve?

Managing one's emotions and understanding others'

What is the primary influence on moral judgments, according to the text?

Families, communities, and societies

What does the text suggest about the construction of emotions?

Emotions are constructed by the brain based on experiences and stimuli

What is involved in emotion recognition, according to the text?

Feeling emotions ourselves

What is necessary for forming complex societies, according to the text?

Human cooperation

What does the intentional strategy reliably predict?

The behavior of 'true believers'

What does the intentional strategy reliably predict?

The behavior of 'true believers'

Which animal is capable of distinguishing known words from unknown words and learning new words through fast mapping and exclusion?

Dogs

Who were the key figures in AI mentioned as pioneers in the field?

John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky

What was the term used to describe the unexplainable decision-making and recognition processes displayed by Deep Patient and Deep Dream in AI?

Deep learning

What was the birthplace of the term 'AI', gathering top scientists to discuss the field's future?

The Dartmouth AI Conference

What mathematical models does AI use to adjust weights for accurate results?

Neurons, hidden layers, and backpropagation

Which animals are capable of recognizing individual humans and adapting to captivity?

Octopuses

What principles are included in cognitive science?

Materialism/naturalism, reduction computation, and determinism

What raises concerns about understanding and generalization in AI, as exemplified by the skydiving hot dog example?

The cost of interpretability

What does AI operate using to adjust weights for accurate results?

Neural networks and backpropagation

What did researchers aim to teach AI to learn like, drawing parallels between human instincts and AI learning processes?

Children

What do jays modify based on past experiences and observations, suggesting cognitive complexity?

Caching strategies

What do octopuses adapt to and recognize, indicating their high intelligence?

Individual humans

What are the key approaches to morality mentioned in the text?

Virtue ethics, deontology, consequentialism, and contractualism

What does the Doctrine of Double Effect allow?

Causing harm as a side effect of bringing about a good result

What theory suggests that emotional and rational systems influence moral judgment?

Josh Greene's Dual Systems Theory of Moral Judgment

What does Paul Bloom's research emphasize regarding the role of cultural development and rational insights in shaping unselfish morality?

It highlights an innate sense of morality in babies as well as the role of cultural development and rational insights

What do comparative cognition studies focus on?

Cognition in other animal species

What core cognitive abilities are shared between humans and animals, as mentioned in the text?

Representation of others' knowledge but failure to represent belief

What does ethology explore?

Adaptive behaviors

What do studies of morality in babies suggest about innate morality?

They suggest an innate structure guiding morality, as babies prefer helpers over hinderers

What does the Trolley problem elicit?

Different moral responses

What does Paul Bloom's research highlight regarding the emergence of morality?

An innate sense of morality in babies, influenced by cultural development and rational insights

What do nonhuman primates fail to represent, according to the text?

Belief

What does the text suggest about the role of emotions in overriding rationality?

Emotions and punishment can override rationality

Which theory involves calculating the expected utility of possible outcomes for decision making?

Expected Utility Theory (EUT)

What does utility represent in decision making theories?

Subjective measure of satisfaction

Who emphasizes the use of heuristics and good intuition in decision making?

Gigerenzer

What does Theory of Mind involve?

Understanding and attributing mental states to others

Who proposed theories like prospect theory and are known as the fathers of behavioral economics?

Tversky & Kahneman

What does loss aversion refer to in decision making?

Preference for avoiding losses over acquiring equivalent gains

What does Homo economicus refer to in economic theories?

Individuals acting as perfectly rational agents

What does Prospect Theory by Kahneman introduce?

Adaptation level, diminishing sensitivity, and loss aversion

What does Planning fallacy involve?

Tendency to underestimate the likelihood of unexpected events

What does Theory of Mind involve?

Understanding and attributing mental states to others

According to Gigerenzer, what is emphasized in decision making?

Use of heuristics and good intuition

What is a limitation on rational behavior involving underestimating the likelihood of unexpected events?

Planning fallacy

According to Expected Utility Theory (EUT), what is utility?

A measure of satisfaction

What does Homo economicus refer to in economic theories?

Individuals acting as perfectly rational agents

Which theory introduces concepts such as adaptation level, diminishing sensitivity, and loss aversion?

Prospect Theory by Kahneman

Who are known as the fathers of behavioral economics, proposing theories like prospect theory?

Tversky & Kahneman

What does Theory of mind involve?

Understanding and attributing mental states to others

What does Inverse Planning involve?

Going backwards from action to beliefs and desires

Who argues that there is no metaphysical difference between humans and systems in predicting behavior?

Dennett

According to Shari Liu's study, when does Theory of Mind develop?

Within the first year of life

What does Planning fallacy involve?

A tendency to underestimate the likelihood of unexpected events

What is emphasized by Gigerenzer in decision making?

Use of heuristics and good intuition

What tendency do people with ADHD have in decision making, according to the text?

Deficient/risky decision making and being more loss averse

What is a limitation on rational behavior according to the text?

Planning fallacy

According to Expected Utility Theory (EUT), what does utility represent?

A measure of happiness or satisfaction from an outcome

What is Homo economicus in the context of decision making theories?

An individual acting as a perfectly rational agent in economic theories

Which theory introduces concepts such as adaptation level, diminishing sensitivity, and loss aversion?

Prospect Theory by Kahneman

Who is known as the father of behavioral economics, proposing theories like prospect theory?

Tversky & Kahneman

What does Theory of Mind involve?

Understanding and attributing mental states to others, including false beliefs

According to Gigerenzer, what does he emphasize in decision making?

The use of heuristics and good intuition

What does Theory of Mind involve, according to the text?

Understanding and attributing mental states to others, including false beliefs

What does Inverse Planning involve?

Going backwards from action to beliefs and desires to treat an agent as rational

According to the text, what does Homo economicus refer to?

Individuals acting as perfectly rational agents in economic theories

What is Planning Fallacy, as described in the text?

A limitation on rational behavior, involving a tendency to underestimate the likelihood of unexpected events

What is the primary focus of Expected Utility Theory (EUT), according to the text?

Calculating the expected utility of possible outcomes for decision making

What is a key characteristic of Prospect Theory by Kahneman, as mentioned in the text?

Introduces concepts such as adaptation level, diminishing sensitivity, and loss aversion

Study Notes

Human Morality, Cooperation, and Social Norms

  • 2012 study shows humans' natural instinct to cooperate, demonstrated by pooling resources resulting in more products
  • Various iterations of the Dictator Game reveal surprising human generosity and the use of punishment to deter cheaters
  • Third Party Punisher game allows outside participants to punish dictators, enforcing social norms
  • Smaller scale societies lack third party punishment, requiring enforced norms for larger societies to function
  • Morality arises from a complex interaction of reasoning, emotion, theory of mind, and innate structure
  • Four broad approaches to morality: virtue ethics, deontology, consequentialism, and contractualism
  • Trolley problem and Footbridge problem elicit different moral responses, attributed to emotional influence
  • Traditional theory suggests humans are taught morality, while contemporary theory proposes an innate brain structure
  • Studies of morality in babies suggest an innate sense of morality, preference for helpers, and innate structure guiding morality
  • Ethical dilemma scenarios like the crying baby case provide insight into different moral perspectives
  • Dual Systems Theory of Moral Judgment by Josh Greene suggests emotional and rational systems influence moral judgment
  • Comparative cognition explores the study of cognition in other animal species and the shared core cognitive abilities between humans and animals

Animal Cognition and Artificial Intelligence: Key Points

  • Chimpanzees perform better on working memory tests than humans.
  • Crows are capable of using tools and adapting them to better suit their purpose.
  • Monkeys and dogs can understand unconscious/subconscious cues.
  • Syntax, belief representation, and theory of mind are unique to specific animals such as chimpanzees.
  • Vervet monkeys have distinct communication systems, using calls to represent semantics.
  • Dogs can distinguish known words from unknown words, even when prosody is controlled.
  • Scrub jays modify their caching strategy based on prior experience of pilfering and being observed caching.
  • Domestic dogs and border collies can associate words with specific objects and learn new words through fast mapping and exclusion.
  • Octopuses are highly intelligent, capable of recognizing individual humans and differentiating between food and non-food items.
  • Key figures in AI include John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky, pioneers in artificial intelligence.
  • Cognitive science principles include materialism/naturalism, reduction computation, and determinism.
  • Deep learning in AI is responsible for unexplainable AI systems and their ability to find hidden patterns in data.

Understanding Human Morality and Comparative Cognition

  • In smaller scale societies, there is minimal third-party punishment or indirect reciprocity, necessitating enforced norms for larger societies to function.
  • Humans tend to be more generous than necessary in short periods, but emotions and punishment can override rationality.
  • Third-party punishment games are powerful tools for studying social norms, and human morality arises from a complex interaction of reasoning, emotion, theory of mind, and innate structures.
  • Key approaches to morality include virtue ethics, deontology, consequentialism, and contractualism, each with a distinct focus on moral rules and obligations.
  • The Trolley problem and Footbridge problem elicit different moral responses, and the Doctrine of Double Effect allows causing harm as a side effect of bringing about a good result.
  • Traditional theories suggest humans are taught right from wrong, but contemporary theories propose an innate brain structure guiding morality, supported by studies of morality in babies.
  • Studies of morality in babies suggest an innate structure guiding morality, as babies prefer "helpers" over "hinderers."
  • Different moral theories provide conflicting perspectives on scenarios like the crying baby case, highlighting the debate on innate morality.
  • Josh Greene's Dual Systems Theory of Moral Judgment suggests emotional and rational systems influence moral judgment, supported by fMRI investigations.
  • Paul Bloom's research highlights an innate sense of morality in babies, but also emphasizes the role of cultural development and rational insights in shaping unselfish morality.
  • Comparative cognition studies cognition in other animal species and ethology explores adaptive behaviors, with core cognitive abilities shared between humans and animals.
  • Nonhuman primates can represent what others know but fail at representing belief, raising questions about what makes humans special in terms of cognition.

Decision Making Theories and Theory of Mind

  • Expected Utility Theory (EUT) involves calculating the expected utility of possible outcomes for decision making.
  • Utility is a subjective measure of happiness or satisfaction from an outcome.
  • Homo economicus refers to individuals acting as "perfectly rational" agents in economic theories.
  • Planning fallacy is a limitation on rational behavior, involving a tendency to underestimate the likelihood of unexpected events.
  • Prospect Theory by Kahneman introduces concepts such as adaptation level, diminishing sensitivity, and loss aversion.
  • Gigerenzer emphasizes the use of heuristics and good intuition in decision making.
  • People with ADHD tend to have deficient/risky decision making and are more loss averse than those without ADHD.
  • Tversky & Kahneman are known as the fathers of behavioral economics, proposing theories like prospect theory.
  • Theory of mind involves understanding and attributing mental states to others, including false beliefs.
  • Inverse Planning involves going backwards from action to beliefs and desires to treat an agent as rational.
  • Dennett argues that there is no metaphysical difference between humans and systems in predicting behavior.
  • Shari Liu's study shows that Theory of Mind develops within the first year of life, as infants expect preferences based on observed actions.

Test your knowledge on human morality, cooperation, social norms, animal cognition, and artificial intelligence with this challenging quiz. Explore key studies, theories, and findings in these fascinating fields.

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