# Experimental Group vs Control Group Quiz

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## 18 Questions

### What is another term for independent variables in correlational research?

Predictor variables

### Which type of research focuses on studying the effects of a functional relationship by manipulating variables?

Experimental research

### In experimental designs, what is the role of a control group?

To provide a baseline where no changes are made

### What do dependent variables represent in correlational research?

Criteria for prediction

### Which type of research is best suited for determining causation between variables?

Experimental research

### What is the primary purpose of manipulating variables in an experimental design?

To establish a functional relationship

### What is the main purpose of descriptive research?

Quantify and study observed data

Survey research

### In correlational research, what does it mean when two variables have a correlation of 1:2?

For every unit increase in one variable, the other increases by 2 units

### What is a key principle to remember in correlational research?

Correlation does not indicate causation

### Which type of research involves simple observation and subsequent quantification of data?

Descriptive research

### What is the primary difference between descriptive and correlational research?

Descriptive research quantifies observed data; correlational research examines relationships.

### In an experimental design, which group receives the changes, approaches, or treatments being studied?

Experimental group

Data Mining

### What should instructional procedures ideally be subjected to before being accepted as effective teaching methods?

Experimental analysis

### Which research design compares the effects of Project-Based Learning (PBL) to traditional lecture approach?

Experimental design

Survey

### When trying to analyze the relationship between variables, which type of study provides evidence for teachers according to the text?

Correlational studies

## Study Notes

### Experimental Designs

• An experimental group is a group where changes, approaches, or treatments are given and measured in comparison to a control group.
• Example: The effect of project-based learning on student performance, where the experimental group is taught using project-based learning, and the control group is taught using traditional lecture approach.

### Control Group

• A control group is the baseline group where changes, approaches, or treatments are not applied.
• It serves as a comparison to the experimental group.

### Data Gathering Methods

• Survey: uses structured questionnaires to gather data and information on participant behaviors, attitudes, etc.
• Document Analysis: uses extant information sources to gather quantitative data for analysis and interpretation (e.g., student grades, anecdotal records, etc.).
• Data Mining: acquires information and insights from Internet usage to be used as data for analysis (e.g., Facebook page engagements, comments).

### Research Methods

• Descriptive Research: easiest form of gaining knowledge and a first step towards subsequent scientific inquiry.
• Descriptive Observational Research: simple observation and the subsequent quantification and study of observed data (e.g., anecdotal records).
• Survey Research: uses a survey questionnaire administered through various modes to gather relevant data (e.g., election polls, class statistics).

### Correlational Research

• A relationship exists between two variables when knowing the value of one variable allows you to estimate, to some degree, what the value would be of the other variable.
• Example: Two variables x and y; if y is 2, then x is 1; if y is 6, then x is 3. Thus, there is a correlation between x and y.
• Correlation does not imply causation; two things can be related, but they may not be the cause/effect of each other.

### Variables in Correlational Research

• Independent variables are also called predictor variables, as their movement predicts the movement of the dependent variable/s.
• Dependent variables are also called criterion variables, as these variables are the criteria to which prediction is possible.

### Experimental Designs

• Experimental designs study the effects of a functional relationship, which is demonstrated when active changes in one variable produce concomitant changes in another.
• Experimental designs manipulate variables in a study to study the extent of the relationship being studied.
• Researchers use a control group and an experimental group to study the effects of a treatment or approach.

Test your knowledge on experimental and control groups, their definitions, and differences with examples like the Effect of Project-Based Learning on Student Performance. Learn about how experiments are conducted and results are measured.

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