Experimental Group vs Control Group Quiz

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18 Questions

What is another term for independent variables in correlational research?

Predictor variables

Which type of research focuses on studying the effects of a functional relationship by manipulating variables?

Experimental research

In experimental designs, what is the role of a control group?

To provide a baseline where no changes are made

What do dependent variables represent in correlational research?

Criteria for prediction

Which type of research is best suited for determining causation between variables?

Experimental research

What is the primary purpose of manipulating variables in an experimental design?

To establish a functional relationship

What is the main purpose of descriptive research?

Quantify and study observed data

Which type of research involves using survey questionnaires for data collection?

Survey research

In correlational research, what does it mean when two variables have a correlation of 1:2?

For every unit increase in one variable, the other increases by 2 units

What is a key principle to remember in correlational research?

Correlation does not indicate causation

Which type of research involves simple observation and subsequent quantification of data?

Descriptive research

What is the primary difference between descriptive and correlational research?

Descriptive research quantifies observed data; correlational research examines relationships.

In an experimental design, which group receives the changes, approaches, or treatments being studied?

Experimental group

Which method involves acquiring information and insights from Internet usage for analysis in data research?

Data Mining

What should instructional procedures ideally be subjected to before being accepted as effective teaching methods?

Experimental analysis

Which research design compares the effects of Project-Based Learning (PBL) to traditional lecture approach?

Experimental design

What type of data gathering method involves the use of structured questionnaires to collect information on participant behaviors and attitudes?


When trying to analyze the relationship between variables, which type of study provides evidence for teachers according to the text?

Correlational studies

Study Notes

Experimental Designs

  • An experimental group is a group where changes, approaches, or treatments are given and measured in comparison to a control group.
  • Example: The effect of project-based learning on student performance, where the experimental group is taught using project-based learning, and the control group is taught using traditional lecture approach.

Control Group

  • A control group is the baseline group where changes, approaches, or treatments are not applied.
  • It serves as a comparison to the experimental group.

Data Gathering Methods

  • Survey: uses structured questionnaires to gather data and information on participant behaviors, attitudes, etc.
  • Document Analysis: uses extant information sources to gather quantitative data for analysis and interpretation (e.g., student grades, anecdotal records, etc.).
  • Data Mining: acquires information and insights from Internet usage to be used as data for analysis (e.g., Facebook page engagements, comments).

Research Methods

  • Descriptive Research: easiest form of gaining knowledge and a first step towards subsequent scientific inquiry.
  • Descriptive Observational Research: simple observation and the subsequent quantification and study of observed data (e.g., anecdotal records).
  • Survey Research: uses a survey questionnaire administered through various modes to gather relevant data (e.g., election polls, class statistics).

Correlational Research

  • A relationship exists between two variables when knowing the value of one variable allows you to estimate, to some degree, what the value would be of the other variable.
  • Example: Two variables x and y; if y is 2, then x is 1; if y is 6, then x is 3. Thus, there is a correlation between x and y.
  • Correlation does not imply causation; two things can be related, but they may not be the cause/effect of each other.

Variables in Correlational Research

  • Independent variables are also called predictor variables, as their movement predicts the movement of the dependent variable/s.
  • Dependent variables are also called criterion variables, as these variables are the criteria to which prediction is possible.

Experimental Designs

  • Experimental designs study the effects of a functional relationship, which is demonstrated when active changes in one variable produce concomitant changes in another.
  • Experimental designs manipulate variables in a study to study the extent of the relationship being studied.
  • Researchers use a control group and an experimental group to study the effects of a treatment or approach.

Test your knowledge on experimental and control groups, their definitions, and differences with examples like the Effect of Project-Based Learning on Student Performance. Learn about how experiments are conducted and results are measured.

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