Endocrine System Quiz
209 Questions
1 Views
3.4 Stars

Endocrine System Quiz

Created by
@RewardingOlive

Questions and Answers

Which system is the second controlling system of the body?

Endocrine system

Which system uses chemical messengers released into the blood to control major processes?

Endocrine system

What are some major processes controlled by hormones?

Reproduction and growth

Which major processes are controlled by hormones?

<p>Reproduction and growth</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one big function of hormones in the body?

<p>To maintain homeostasis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which system in the body is responsible for hormone production and regulation?

<p>Endocrine system</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cells are responsible for producing hormones?

<p>Specialized cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are hormones transferred to their target sites?

<p>Through the blood</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the scientific study of hormones and endocrine organs called?

<p>Endocrinology</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cells produce hormones?

<p>Specialized cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are hormones transferred to their target sites?

<p>Through the bloodstream</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does endocrinology study?

<p>Hormones and endocrine organs</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of fluids do cells secrete hormones into?

<p>Interstitial fluids</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where do cells secrete hormones?

<p>extracellular fluids</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of hormones are made from highly active lipids and act as local hormones?

<p>Prostaglandins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are steroids made from?

<p>Cholesterol</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of hormones include proteins, peptides, and amines?

<p>Amino acid–based hormones</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of cells must have specific protein receptors in order for hormones to affect them?

<p>Target cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the three chemical classifications of hormones?

<p>Amino acids, steroids, and prostaglandins</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which statement best describes how hormone binding affects cellular activity?

<p>Hormone binding alters cellular activity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of cells are affected by hormones?

<p>Only certain tissues or organs (target cells or organs)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following are way hormones arouse cells or alter cellular activity?

<p>all the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which mechanism do hormones use to activate genes?

<p>Direct gene activation</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many mechanisms do hormones use to act?

<p>Two</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which step occurs after steroid hormones enter the nucleus?

<p>Steroid hormones bind to a specific protein within the nucleus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of certain genes being activated by steroid hormone, via direct gene activation?

<p>Synthesis of new proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of steroid hormones in direct gene activation?

<p>To activate certain genes that result in synthesis of new proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in direct gene activation by steroid hormones?

<p>Steroid hormones diffuse through the plasma membrane, steroid hormones enter the nucleus , bind to a specific protein, hormone-receptor complex binds to specific sites on DNA, Certain genes are activated that result in...,Synthesis of new proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a step in direct gene activation by steroid hormones?

<p>all are</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which step in the second-messenger system (steroidal) produces a second-messenger molecule?

<p>Step 3: Enzyme catalyzes a reaction</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the membrane receptor in the second-messenger system?

<p>Activating the enzyme</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the enzyme in the second-messenger system? (non steroid)

<p>catalyzes a reaction that produces a second-messenger molecule (such as cyclic AMP, or cAMP)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which mechanism is primarily responsible for maintaining hormone levels in the blood?

<p>Negative feedback</p> Signup and view all the answers

What triggers the release of more hormone when levels are low?

<p>A stimulus</p> Signup and view all the answers

When does hormone release stop?

<p>once an appropriate level in the blood is reached</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which category of stimuli activates endocrine glands by the release of hormones into the blood?

<p>Hormonal</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the three major categories of stimuli that activate endocrine glands?

<p>Hormonal, Humoral, Neural</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of stimuli is the most common for activating endocrine organs?

<p>Hormonal stimuli</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of endocrine glands?

<p>To produce and secrete hormones</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following stimulates hormone release in the body?

<p>Changing blood levels of certain ions and nutrients</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which system is responsible for controlling hormone release through nerve impulses?

<p>The sympathetic nervous system</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of stimuli is most commonly responsible for activating endocrine glands?

<p>hormonal stimuli</p> Signup and view all the answers

Most Neural Stimuli of Endocrine Glands of hormone release is controlled by?

<p>Sympathetic nervous system</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do blood levels of certain ions and nutrients do?

<p>Stimulate hormone release</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which endocrine organ is responsible for regulating the body's metabolism?

<p>Thyroid gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which endocrine organ is responsible for producing insulin?

<p>Pancreas</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which endocrine organ is responsible for producing growth hormone?

<p>Pituitary gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland is responsible for producing growth hormone?

<p>Pituitary gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which organ is responsible for producing insulin?

<p>Pancreas</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which glands are responsible for producing the male and female reproductive hormones?

<p>Gonads</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following glands are purely endocrine?

<p>Thyroid</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following statements is true about endocrine glands?

<p>Endocrine glands are ductless glands (Both c and d)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following glands are mixed glands with both endocrine and exocrine functions?

<p>Pancreas</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland is often referred to as the 'master endocrine gland'?

<p>Pituitary gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two functional lobes of the pituitary gland?

<p>Anterior and posterior</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where is the pituitary gland located?

<p>In the brain hangs by a stalk from the hypothalamus.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland hangs by a stalk from the hypothalamus in the brain?

<p>Pituitary gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the size of the pituitary gland?

<p>As big as a pea</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which bone protects the pituitary gland?

<p>Sphenoid bone</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland is responsible for producing the hormone that hangs by a stalk from the hypothalamus?

<p>Pituitary gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where is the pineal gland located?

<p>Posterior to the third ventricle of the brain</p> Signup and view all the answers

What hormone does the pineal gland secrete?

<p>Melatonin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the functions of the pineal gland?

<p>Establishing sleep/wake cycles</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland is believed to coordinate the hormones of fertility in humans?

<p>Pineal gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland produces releasing and inhibiting hormones that are released into portal circulation?

<p>Pituitary gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormones are produced by the hypothalamus and carried to the posterior pituitary for storage?

<p>Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are the hormones produced by the hypothalamus carried to the posterior pituitary gland?

<p>Via neurosecretory cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland produces releasing and inhibiting hormones that are released into portal circulation?

<p>Hypothalmus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of releasing and inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus?

<p>To stimulate the release of hormones from the pituitary gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where are the releasing and inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus released?

<p>Into the portal circulation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland produces oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone?

<p>Hypothalmus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two hormones produced by the hypothalamus?

<p>Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT produced by the hypothalamus?

<p>Insulin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone stimulates contractions of the uterus during labor, sexual relations, and breastfeeding?

<p>Oxytocin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of oxytocin?

<p>Stimulating contractions of the uterus</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which situation would oxytocin be released?

<p>During labor</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone inhibits urine production by promoting water reabsorption by the kidneys?

<p>Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens when ADH is present in large amounts in the body?

<p>Causes vasoconstriction of arterioles, leading to increased blood pressure which is why it's known as vasopressin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What condition results from ADH hyposecretion?

<p>Diabetes insipidus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following hormones affect nonendocrine targets?

<p>Growth hormone</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many anterior pituitary hormones affect nonendocrine targets?

<p>Two</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a hormone of the anterior pituitary?

<p>Insulin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following hormones affect nonendocrine targets?

<p>B and C</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many anterior pituitary hormones affect nonendocrine targets?

<p>Two</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two anterior pituitary hormones that affect nonendocrine targets?

<p>Growth hormone and prolactin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone stimulates the release of thyroid hormones?

<p>Thyroid-stimulating hormone</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormones stimulate the release of other hormones (tropic hormones)?

<p>Thyroid-stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland is responsible for producing luteinizing hormone?

<p>Pituitary gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of structure do all anterior pituitary hormones have?

<p>Protein structure</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do anterior pituitary hormones act?

<p>Through second-messenger systems</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are anterior pituitary hormones regulated?

<p>By hormonal stimuli and negative feedback (mostly)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the major effect of Growth hormone (GH)?

<p>Stimulation of growth of skeletal muscles and long bones</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Growth hormone (GH) cause fats to be broken down for?

<p>Energy source</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone of the Anterior Pituitary is responsible for growth of skeletal muscles and long bones?

<p>Growth hormone (GH)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Growth hormone (GH) does many things, but what is its big objective??

<p>Major effects are directed to growth of skeletal muscles and long bones. Plays a role in determining final body size</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which disorder results from hyposecretion of Growth hormone (GH) during childhood?

<p>Pituitary dwarfism</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which disorder results from hypersecretion of Growth hormone (GH) during childhood?

<p>Gigantism</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which disorder results from hypersecretion of Growth hormone (GH) during adulthood?

<p>Acromegaly</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone of the Anterior Pituitary stimulates and maintains milk production following childbirth?

<p>Prolactin (PRL)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the body?

<p>Regulates endocrine activity of the adrenal cortex</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of Prolactin (PRL) in males?

<p>Function in males is unknown</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone disorder is caused by hypothyroidism in adults and results in physical and mental sluggishness?

<p>Myxedema</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone disorder is caused by hyperthyroidism and results in increased metabolism, heat intolerance, rapid heartbeat, weight loss, and exophthalmos?

<p>Graves' disease</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone disorder is characterized by rapid heartbeat and weight loss?

<p>Graves' disease</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which disorder is caused by hypothyroidism in adults?

<p>Myxedema</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which disorder is caused by hyperthyroidism?

<p>Graves' disease</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which symptom is associated with myxedema?

<p>Physical and mental sluggishness</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone decreases blood calcium levels by causing calcium deposition on bone?

<p>Calcitonin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone is antagonistic to parathyroid hormone?

<p>Calcitonin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where is calcitonin produced?

<p>Produced by parafollicular cells found between the follicles</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH)?

<p>parathyroid glands</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?

<p>Stimulates osteoblasts to remove calcium from bone</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which organs does parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulate to absorb more calcium?

<p>Kidneys and intestines</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which region of the adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids?

<p>Outermost layer</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of hormones are secreted by the middle layer of the adrenal cortex?

<p>Glucocorticoids</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where is the adrenal medulla located?

<p>inner neural tissue region</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where are sex hormones secreted from in the adrenal cortex?

<p>Inner layer</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone is mainly responsible for regulating mineral content in the blood, particularly sodium and potassium ions?

<p>Aldosterone (mineralocorticoids)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where are mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone, primarily produced?

<p>Outer adrenal cortex</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the target organ of mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone?

<p>Kidney</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone primarily regulates water and electrolyte balance in the body?

<p>Aldosterone</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland is responsible for secreting the hormone aldosterone?

<p>Adrenal gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex?

<p>Decreased blood pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

What inhibits the production of aldosterone?

<p>Increased blood sodium levels</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a stimulus for aldosterone release?

<p>Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factors stimulate the release of aldosterone?

<p>Humoral factors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What inhibits the production of aldosterone?

<p>Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What hormone stimulates the release of aldosterone?

<p>All the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following can stimulate the release of aldosterone?

<p>B and D</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the adrenal cortex produces glucocorticoids?

<p>Middle layer</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of glucocorticoids?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What stimulates the release of glucocorticoids?

<p>Increased blood levels of ACTH</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the adrenal cortex produces glucocorticoids?

<p>Middle layer</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of glucocorticoids?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What stimulates the release of glucocorticoids?

<p>Increased blood levels of ACTH</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which sex hormones are produced in the inner layer of the adrenal cortex?

<p>Androgens</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where are the sex hormones produced in the adrenal cortex?

<p>Inner layer</p> Signup and view all the answers

What types of hormones are mainly produced in the adrenal cortex?

<p>Androgens</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which disorder is caused by hyposecretion of all adrenal cortex hormones?

<p>Addison's disease</p> Signup and view all the answers

What may result from an ACTH-releasing tumor in the adrenal glands?

<p>Hyperaldosteronism</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which symptom is associated with hyperaldosteronism?

<p>Susceptibility to infection ( all the above as well as burnout)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which disorder is characterized by a tumor in the middle cortical area of the adrenal cortex?

<p>Cushing's syndrome</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some symptoms of Cushing's syndrome?

<p>Moon face, buffalo hump, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, weakening of bones, depression</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the adrenal cortex produces glucocorticoids?

<p>Middle layer</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a symptom of masculinization?

<p>Increased hair growth on the face</p> Signup and view all the answers

What causes masculinization?

<p>Hypersecretion of sex hormones</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormones are produced by the Adrenal Medulla?

<p>Epinephrine and norepinephrine (catecholamines)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the other names for epinephrine and norepinephrine, respectively?

<p>Adrenaline and noradrenaline</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of hormones are produced by the Adrenal Medulla?

<p>Catecholamines</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormones prepare the body to deal with short-term stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels?

<p>Catecholamines</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main effect of catecholamines on the lungs during short-term stress?

<p>Dilation of small passageways</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which response is associated with the 'fight or flight' response triggered by catecholamines?

<p>Dilated pupils</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormones prepare the body to deal with short-term stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels?

<p>Catecholamines</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main effect of catecholamines on the small passageways of the lungs?

<p>Dilation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a short-term stress response caused by catecholamines?

<p>Decreased blood glucose levels</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland is located in the abdomen, close to the stomach?

<p>Pancreas</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the functions of the pancreas?

<p>Both endocrine and exocrine functions</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following glands is a mixed gland with both endocrine and exocrine functions?

<p>Pancreas</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone is produced by the alpha cells in the pancreatic islets?

<p>Glucagon</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the relationship between insulin and glucagon?

<p>Insulin and glucagon have opposite functions in blood sugar regulation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cells in the pancreatic islets produce insulin?

<p>Beta cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone is produced by the alpha cells in the pancreatic islets?

<p>Glucagon</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone is produced by the beta cells in the pancreatic islets?

<p>Insulin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus?

<p>All the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens to blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus?

<p>They increase dramatically</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why does water follow glucose into the urine in diabetes mellitus?

<p>To excrete excess glucose</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens to blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus?

<p>They increase dramatically</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland is located posterior to the sternum?

<p>Thymus gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland produces thymosin?

<p>Thymus gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland is important in developing the immune system?

<p>Thymus gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland is located posterior to the sternum?

<p>Thymus gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the thymus gland produce?

<p>Thymosin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the thymus gland?

<p>Maturing white blood cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone is produced by the ovaries?

<p>A and D</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone is produced by the testes?

<p>Testosterone</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two groups of steroid hormones produced by the ovaries?

<p>Estrogens and Progesterone</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormones stimulate the development of secondary female characteristics and regulate the menstrual cycle?

<p>Estrogens</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of estrogens in the body?

<p>Mature female reproductive organs ( all the above)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone, along with estrogens, promotes breast development?

<p>Progesterone</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone acts with estrogen to bring about the menstrual cycle?

<p>Progesterone</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does progesterone help prepare the breasts for?

<p>Lactation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone helps in the implantation of an embryo in the uterus?

<p>Progesterone</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where does the implantation of an embryo occur?

<p>Uterus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone is responsible for adult male secondary sex characteristics?

<p>Testosterone</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some function of androgens in the male reproductive system?

<p>B and C</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone is produced by the placenta in addition to estrogen, progesterone, and other hormones?

<p>Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the hormones produced by the placenta?

<p>Maintain pregnancy</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which organ plays a part delivery of the baby?

<p>Placenta</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a symptom associated with decreasing function of female ovaries at menopause?

<p>All the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a effect of decreasing function of female ovaries at menopause on bone health?

<p>Decreased bone density</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age does the efficiency of the endocrine system start to decrease?

<p>In old age</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a common effect of aging on the endocrine system?

<p>Increased incidence of diabetes mellitus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a common effect of aging on the endocrine system?

<p>increased metabolic rate</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a possible consequence of the decreased efficiency of endocrine glands with aging?

<p>Increased cancer rates</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone stimulates follicle development in the ovaries and sperm development in the testes?

<p>Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone triggers ovulation of an egg in females and stimulates testosterone production in males?

<p>Luteinizing hormone (LH)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormones regulate the hormonal activity of the gonads?

<p>Gonadotropic hormones</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where is the thyroid gland located?

<p>At the base of the throat</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many lobes does the thyroid gland have?

<p>Two lobes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What hormones does the thyroid gland produce?

<p>Thyroid hormone and calcitonin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland is responsible for producing thyroid hormones?

<p>Thyroid gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of thyroid hormones?

<p>Promoting tissue growth and development (Major metabolic hormone (Controls rate of oxidation of glucose to supply body heat and chemical energy</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormones are secreted by the thyroid gland?

<p>Thyroxine and triiodothyronine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition is caused by the hyposecretion of thyroxine and results in dwarfism during childhood?

<p>Cretinism</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main reason why salt is iodized?

<p>To prevent goiters</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gland enlarges due to the lack of iodine and can cause goiters?

<p>Thyroid gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone stimulates and maintains milk production following childbirth?

<p>Prolactin (PRL)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)?

<p>Regulates endocrine activity of the adrenal cortex</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of Prolactin (PRL) in males?

<p>Function in males is unknown</p> Signup and view all the answers

More Quizzes Like This

Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser