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12 Questions

What is the primary function of the cerebrum?

Think and remember

What is the term for the time it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei to decay?


What is the main function of the nervous system?

To control body actions and senses

What is the purpose of the myelin sheath in a neuron?

To speed up message transmission

What is the role of the urinary system?

To remove waste from the blood

What is the function of the dendrites in a neuron?

To receive messages from other neurons

What is the primary function of the thyroid gland in the endocrine system?

Regulates metabolism

Which scientist is credited with the discovery of the neutron?

James Chadwick

What is the term for the number of protons in an atom's nucleus?

Atomic number

What type of bond occurs when elements combine to form a compound?

Chemical bond

What is the name of the gland that controls other glands in the endocrine system?

Pituitary gland

What is the term for the process in which an atom loses or gains electrons to achieve stability?

Electron transfer

Study Notes

Endocrine System

  • Special organs that make hormones, which are chemical messengers that travel in the blood
  • Regulates body functions like growth, metabolism, and mood
  • Key glands include:
    • Pituitary Gland: Controls other glands
    • Thyroid Gland: Regulates metabolism
    • Adrenal Glands: Manage stress response
    • Pancreas: Regulates blood sugar
    • Ovaries/Testes: Produce sex hormones
  • Interacts with the nervous system to maintain balance in the body

Atomic Structure

  • Proton: Positive charge
  • Neutron: No charge
  • Electron: Negative charge
  • Atomic Number: Number of protons/electrons
  • Atomic Mass: Protons + Neutrons
  • Maximum electrons per shell: 2n^2
  • Valence electrons determine stability

Elements and Compounds

  • Elements are organized in the periodic table by groups (columns) and periods (rows)
  • Group 17: Halogens
  • Element categories: Alkali Metals, Alkali Earth Metals, Transition Metals, Post-Transition Metals, Metalloids, Non-metals, Noble Gases
  • Mixtures: Two or more elements bonded, can be separated
  • Compounds: Chemically bonded elements, cannot be separated
  • Molecules: Atoms bonded, not visible to the naked eye

Radioactive Decay

  • Decay types: Alpha, Beta, Gamma
  • Isotopes:
    • Stable Isotopes: Nuclei do not decay, remain unchanged over time, and are abundant in nature
    • Radioactive Isotopes: Nuclei are unstable and decay, emit radiation, and are used in medicine, industry, and research
  • Half-life: Time for half the radioactive nuclei to decay, unique to each isotope, and determines decay rate

Nervous System

  • Controls everything you do, think, and feel
  • Central Nervous System (CNS): Brain and spinal cord
  • Function: Neurons send messages, brain stores information and controls actions, senses send messages to the brain, and reactions occur based on messages
  • Key parts: Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Brainstem


  • Special cells that send messages
  • Parts of a neuron:
    • Cell Body: Main part, contains the nucleus
    • Dendrites: Branches from the cell body, receive messages from other neurons
    • Axon: Long part, like a wire, sends messages to other neurons or muscles
    • Myelin Sheath: Covers the axon, speeds up message transmission
    • Axon Terminals: End of the axon, release chemicals to send messages to other neurons or muscles
    • Synapse: Gap between neurons, where messages are passed from one neuron to another
    • Neurotransmitters: Chemicals released at the synapse, carry messages between neurons

Body Systems

  • Circulatory System: Heart and blood vessels, moves blood and nutrients around the body
  • Respiratory System: Lungs and airways, takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
  • Digestive System: Mouth, stomach, intestines, breaks down food for energy and removes waste
  • Nervous System: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, controls body actions and senses
  • Endocrine System: Glands like the thyroid and pituitary, produces hormones for growth and regulates body functions
  • Musculoskeletal System: Muscles, bones, joints, supports and moves the body and protects organs
  • Immune System: White blood cells, fights off infections and diseases and keeps the body healthy
  • Integumentary System: Skin, hair, nails, protects the body from outside harm
  • Urinary System: Kidneys, bladder, removes waste from the blood and regulates water balance in the body
  • Reproductive System: Male and female, responsible for reproduction

if u fail ur cooked

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