Embryology and Anatomy of the Thyroid Gland

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31 Questions

What is the embryological origin of the thyroid gland?

Base of the tongue

What is the significance of the isthmus in the development of the thyroid gland?

It forms the pyramidal lobe in 80% of the population

Why is knowledge of the anatomy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve important?

It may be affected during thyroid surgery, leading to vocal cord paralysis

Which vessel supplies blood to the thyroid gland?

Superior thyroid artery

Where do the superior and middle thyroid veins drain into?

Internal jugular vein

What is the potential risk during surgery for thyroid tumors?

Severe bleeding due to injury to the carotid artery

What is the main purpose of a total thyroidectomy in case of malignancy?

To completely remove the thyroid gland to prevent the spread of malignancy

How can a small swelling in the thyroid be differentiated based on its consistency?

The center will be softer than the peripheral if it is cystic, and harder than the periphery if it is firm

What is the recurrence rate after removing only a cyst in the thyroid?

50%

What will recurrent infection lead to if it opens to the skin?

Fistula formation and continuous discharge

Which investigation is always recommended for thyroid nodules?

Thyroid Ultrasound (US)

What should be done if a patient with a thyroid nodule has dysphagia, dysphonia, or shortness of breath, especially during sleep?

Initiate immediate total thyroidectomy

What can sudden enlargement or pain in the thyroid indicate?

It indicates the need for fine-needle aspiration (FNA)

How should a sudden enlargement in the thyroid be managed?

Aspirate and put compression dressing to prevent recollection

What is the most common type of malignancy associated with the thyroid?

Papillary carcinoma

What structure forms on the foreman cecum in the base of the tongue during embryological life?

Thyroid gland

In 80% of cases, what does the incomplete obliteration of the duct from the thyroid gland result in?

Pyramidal lobe

Which vessel supplies blood to the thyroid gland?

External carotid artery

Where do the superior and middle thyroid veins drain into?

Internal jugular vein

What is the potential risk during surgery for thyroid tumors?

Damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve

Why is it important to know the anatomy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve?

To avoid damage during thyroid surgery

What is the main purpose of performing a total thyroidectomy in case of malignancy?

To prevent the risk of recurrence due to incomplete removal

What might a small swelling in the thyroid indicate if it is less than 2 cm in size?

Recurrence rate of 50% if only the cyst is removed

What is the potential consequence of recurrent infection in the thyroid opening to the skin?

Formation of a fistula and continued discharge

How should sudden enlargement or pain in the thyroid be managed?

Aspirate and put compression dressing to prevent recollection

Why is it important to be careful when there is a change in voice (dysphonia) in a patient with thyroid swelling?

It indicates malignant infiltration to a nerve or vocal cord

What does a sudden enlargement or pain in the thyroid gland indicate?

Potential risk of recurrence due to incomplete removal

What anatomical structure might be affected if a patient with a thyroid nodule experiences dysphonia, dysphagia, or shortness of breath, especially during sleep?

Superior laryngeal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve of parasympathetic supply

What is the course of action if a patient presents with a thyroid nodule?

Perform ultrasound to determine size and site, then FNA if more than 1 cm

What is the embryological origin of the thyroid gland?

'Foreman cecum' in the base of the tongue during embryological life

What is located between the tongue base and the thyroid gland, and has minimal vascularity without signs of invasion?

Simple goiter showing no signs of invasion on imaging studies

Study the embryological development and anatomical features of the thyroid gland focusing on its formation, descent, and related structures.

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