## Questions and Answers

What is the primary function of a switch in an electric circuit?

To control the flow of electric current

What is the unit of measurement for resistance?

Ohms

What happens to the current in a series circuit if one component fails?

The entire circuit is broken

What is the formula to calculate the total resistance in a parallel circuit?

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What type of energy is transferred from a power source to a light bulb in an electric circuit?

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What is the characteristic of the current in a parallel circuit?

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## Study Notes

### Electric Circuits

- A path through which electric current flows from a power source, through one or more devices, and back to the power source
- Consists of:
- Power source (e.g. battery)
- Conductors (e.g. wires)
- Load (e.g. light bulb)
- Switch (optional)

### Resistance

- Opposition to the flow of electric current
- Measured in ohms (Ω)
- Depends on:
- Material of the conductor
- Length of the conductor
- Cross-sectional area of the conductor
- Temperature of the conductor

- Formula: R = ρ * L / A, where ρ is the resistivity of the material

### Series Circuits

- Circuits in which components are connected one after the other
- Characteristics:
- Current is the same throughout the circuit
- Voltage is divided among the components
- If one component fails, the entire circuit is broken

- Formulae:
- Total resistance: R_total = R1 + R2 + ... + Rn
- Total voltage: V_total = V1 + V2 + ... + Vn

### Parallel Circuits

- Circuits in which components are connected between the same two points
- Characteristics:
- Voltage is the same across each component
- Current is divided among the components
- If one component fails, the other components remain unaffected

- Formulae:
- Total resistance: 1/R_total = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + ... + 1/Rn
- Total current: I_total = I1 + I2 + ... + In

### Energy Transfer

- The process of transferring energy from one place to another through electric circuits
- Types of energy transfer:
- Electrical energy → light energy (e.g. light bulb)
- Electrical energy → thermal energy (e.g. heater)
- Electrical energy → kinetic energy (e.g. motor)

- Efficiency: ratio of useful output energy to input energy

### Electric Circuits

- Electric current flows from a power source, through devices, and back to the power source
- Consists of a power source, conductors, load, and an optional switch

### Resistance

- Opposition to electric current flow, measured in ohms (Ω)
- Depends on conductor material, length, cross-sectional area, and temperature
- Formula: R = ρ * L / A, where ρ is the resistivity of the material

### Series Circuits

- Components are connected one after the other
- Characteristics: same current throughout, voltage divided among components, and single component failure breaks the entire circuit
- Formulae: Total resistance: R_total = R1 + R2 +...+ Rn, Total voltage: V_total = V1 + V2 +...+ Vn

### Parallel Circuits

- Components are connected between the same two points
- Characteristics: same voltage across each component, current divided among components, and single component failure doesn't affect other components
- Formulae: Total resistance: 1/R_total = 1/R1 + 1/R2 +...+ 1/Rn, Total current: I_total = I1 + I2 +...+ In

### Energy Transfer

- Process of transferring energy from one place to another through electric circuits
- Types of energy transfer: electrical energy → light, thermal, or kinetic energy
- Efficiency: ratio of useful output energy to input energy

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## Description

This quiz covers the basics of electric circuits, including the components and flow of electric current, as well as resistance, its measurement, and factors that affect it.