## Podcast Beta

## Questions and Answers

What does Hooke's law describe?

The gradient of a linear force-extension graph represents the force applied to the spring.

False

What is the formula for calculating momentum?

p = mv

The point where a spring stops obeying Hooke's law is called the ______.

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Match the following concepts with their definitions:

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Which of the following is an example of a safety feature in cars that reduces the force felt by passengers?

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The moment of a force is calculated by multiplying force and distance from the pivot point.

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What happens to the force applied at a support when a heavy object is moved closer to it?

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Force is equal to the change in momentum divided by ______.

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Which of the following best describes elastic deformation?

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## Study Notes

### Movement and Position

- Speed is the distance covered per unit of time; a changing speed indicates acceleration.
- Acceleration due to gravity near Earth's surface is constant.
- Velocity combines speed with direction; acceleration is the change in velocity over time: ( a = \frac{\Delta v}{t} ).
- Distance is measured in meters (m), time in seconds (s), speed and velocity in meters per second (m/s), and acceleration in meters per second squared (m/s²).
- Distance-time graph:
- Gradient represents velocity; a negative gradient indicates return to starting point.
- A horizontal line indicates stationary position; zero distance means back at start.
- A curved line denotes changing velocity (acceleration).

- Velocity-time graph:
- Gradient indicates acceleration; negative gradient represents deceleration.
- Speed of zero indicates rest; horizontal line implies constant speed.
- Area under the line signifies distance traveled; a curved line reflects changing acceleration.

### Forces, Movement, Shape, and Momentum

- Difference between vectors (magnitude and direction) and scalars (magnitude only):
- Scalars: distance, speed, time, energy.
- Vectors: displacement, velocity, acceleration, force.

- Forces, measured in Newtons (N), can change speed, shape, or direction. Types include gravitational and electrostatic.
- Friction and air resistance impede motion, creating heat.
- Resultant forces: Add forces in the same direction and subtract those in opposite directions.
- Newton's Laws of Motion:
- First Law: An object remains in constant velocity unless acted upon by a resultant force.
- Second Law: ( F = ma ) (Force equals mass multiplied by acceleration).
- Third Law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

- Mass, in kilograms (kg), indicates the amount of matter; weight equals gravitational force on mass: ( W = mg ).
- Gravitational field strength on Earth is approximately 10 N/kg.
- Hooke's Law: For springs, ( F = kx ) (force is spring constant times extension); the gradient in a linear force-extension graph represents the spring constant ( k ).
- Limit of proportionality marks the end of Hooke's Law’s applicability. Non-linear graphs indicate deformation beyond elastic limits.
- Moment (turning effect of a force) is calculated as ( \text{moment} = \text{force} \times \text{perpendicular distance} ) and is measured in Newton metres (Nm).
- An object is in equilibrium when clockwise moments equal anticlockwise moments, resulting in no resultant force.
- Location of an object on a beam affects the upward forces at supports; the closer the object to a support, the greater the force at that support.
- Momentum ( p = mv ) (mass times velocity) is measured in kilogram meters per second (kgm/s).
- Force relates to change in momentum over time: ( F = \frac{\Delta p}{t} ); reduced force results by increasing time to rest in crash scenarios.
- Safety features like seatbelts lengthen the time taken to stop, thus reducing force experienced.

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## Description

This quiz covers the key concepts of Forces and Motion from the Edexcel Physics IGCSE curriculum. It provides summary notes designed to enhance your understanding of the topic. Perfect for students preparing for their exams.