Edema Types and Characteristics

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39 Questions

What gait abnormality is associated with foot drop?

High stepping gait

What is the approximate range of ankle dorsiflexion (flexion) during gait assessment?

20°

Which test is positive when the patient is unable to raise or invert during single leg heel raise?

Simmonds triad test

What does the absence of ankle movement during Thomson calf squeeze suggest?

Achilles tendon rupture

What gait abnormality is characterized by the pelvis dropping on the opposite side to the stance leg due to hip abductor weakness?

Trendelenburg gait

Which of the following is NOT a component of the introduction phase of ankle and foot examination?

Asking about previous surgical history

What is a potential cause of swelling in the ankle or hallux?

Pitting and non-pitting edema

How is flat foot (pes planus) characterized during the inspection of the foot?

Absence of the normal foot arch

What is a potential visual indicator of infection or inflammation during the inspection phase?

Swelling and redness

What is the biggest difference between pitting and non-pitting edema?

The response to pressure

What is the expected range of ankle plantar flexion (extension) during the passive movement assessment of the Achilles tendon?

45º

Which test is used to assess for a suspected Achilles tendon rupture by squeezing the calf to check for ankle movement?

Thomson calf squeeze

What gait abnormality is associated with foot drop, often caused by peroneal nerve palsy?

High stepping gait

Which joint is involved in the Single Leg Heel Raise Test used to assess tibialis posterior dysfunction?

Ankle joint

What is the expected range of eversion/supination (toes in) during the passive movement assessment of the Achilles tendon?

20º

What is the main characteristic differentiating pitting edema from non-pitting edema?

Response to pressure

How is the Rearfoot Angle (RFA) measured during gait assessment?

Using a goniometer

What does an RFA of 4° valgus to 4° varus indicate in gait assessment?

Neutral foot

What does increased temperature during gait assessment indicate?

Septic or inflammatory arthritis

Which condition is characterized by the presence of myxoedema and lipoedema in gait assessment?

Pitting edema

What is the purpose of assessing the Achilles tendon?

To look for Achilles tendonitis

What is the main characteristic of pitting edema?

It leaves a visible indentation when pressure is applied

What is a common finding in Achilles tendonitis?

Swelling and redness

How would you measure muscle wasting in the calf during an Achilles tendon assessment?

Measure at the level of the tibial tuberosity

What is the significance of haglund's deformity in relation to Achilles tendon assessment?

It can cause irritation and inflammation of the Achilles tendon

What is the purpose of measuring the Rearfoot Angle (RFA) using a goniometer?

To assess the alignment of the Achilles tendon

What does an RFA measurement of 5° valgus indicate about the foot type?

Pronated foot type

In Achilles tendon assessment, what does the acute angle between line one and line two signify?

Rearfoot Angle (RFA)

What does the non-pitting edema indicate during Achilles tendon assessment?

Lack of response to pressure

What gait abnormality is associated with a positive result in Achilles heel raise test?

Foot drop

Where is the common site of sprains involving the ligament complex?

In the medial and lateral ligament complex

What is a characteristic finding when palpating the plantar fascia?

Focal tenderness

During the ankle examination, where should the examiner palpate to detect any discontinuity suggestive of tendon rupture?

Over the dorsum of the foot

What is a potential visual indicator of ligament complex injury during the inspection phase of the examination?

Swelling and irregularity

Which joint is involved in the Single Leg Heel Raise Test used to assess tibialis posterior dysfunction?

Ankle joint

What is the approximate range of ankle dorsiflexion (flexion) during gait assessment?

$20º$

What is a common finding in Achilles tendonitis?

Focal tenderness or swelling suggestive of tendonitis

What is the significance of Haglund's deformity in relation to Achilles tendon assessment?

Suggests possible Achilles tendon rupture

How is flat foot (pes planus) characterized during the inspection of the foot?

By having a palatable gap

Study Notes

Gait Abnormalities

  • Foot drop is associated with a gait abnormality.
  • A gait abnormality characterized by the pelvis dropping on the opposite side to the stance leg due to hip abductor weakness is known as a Trendelenburg gait.

Ankle Dorsiflexion

  • The approximate range of ankle dorsiflexion (flexion) during gait assessment is 10-15°.

Single Leg Heel Raise Test

  • The Single Leg Heel Raise Test is used to assess tibialis posterior dysfunction.
  • The test is positive when the patient is unable to raise or invert during single leg heel raise.

Ankle and Foot Examination

  • Absence of ankle movement during Thomson calf squeeze suggests a suspected Achilles tendon rupture.
  • Inspection of the foot for flat foot (pes planus) is characterized by a lack of medial longitudinal arch.
  • A potential visual indicator of infection or inflammation during the inspection phase is erythema.
  • A potential cause of swelling in the ankle or hallux is infection or inflammation.

Edema

  • The biggest difference between pitting and non-pitting edema is that pitting edema leaves a dent when pressed.
  • Pitting edema is characterized by leaving a dent when pressed, whereas non-pitting edema does not.
  • Non-pitting edema indicates lymphedema.

Achilles Tendon

  • The purpose of assessing the Achilles tendon is to identify potential injuries or conditions such as Achilles tendonitis.
  • The expected range of ankle plantar flexion (extension) during the passive movement assessment of the Achilles tendon is 40-50°.
  • The expected range of eversion/supination (toes in) during the passive movement assessment of the Achilles tendon is 10-15°.
  • A common finding in Achilles tendonitis is pain and swelling.
  • Muscle wasting in the calf can be measured by comparing the circumference of both calves.
  • Haglund's deformity is significant in relation to Achilles tendon assessment as it can increase the risk of tendon rupture.

Rearfoot Angle (RFA)

  • The RFA is measured during gait assessment using a goniometer.
  • An RFA of 4° valgus to 4° varus indicates a normal foot type.
  • An RFA measurement of 5° valgus indicates a pronated foot type.

Other

  • Increased temperature during gait assessment indicates inflammation.
  • The presence of myxoedema and lipoedema characterizes a condition known as hypothyroidism.
  • The common site of sprains involving the ligament complex is the lateral ankle.
  • A characteristic finding when palpating the plantar fascia is tenderness.
  • During the ankle examination, the examiner should palpate the Achilles tendon to detect any discontinuity suggestive of tendon rupture.
  • A potential visual indicator of ligament complex injury during the inspection phase of the examination is swelling.

Test your knowledge about the different types of edema, including pitting and non-pitting edema, myxoedema, lipoedema, and related conditions like unilateral muscle wasting and pes cavus. Learn to differentiate between pitting and non-pitting edema based on their response to pressure.

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