## Questions and Answers

What is the main difference between descriptive and inferential statistics?

Descriptive statistics uses summary measures like mean and standard deviation, while inferential statistics leads to predictions or inferences about the entire dataset.

In a research study, what is a sample?

A subset or representative of the population from which information is collected

What is a census in the context of data collection?

A method of collecting data from the entire population

Which concept involves predicting or inferring about the entire dataset or future values?

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What are the two main areas of inferential statistics?

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Which statistic is NOT typically used in descriptive statistics?

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What is a parameter?

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What is the main difference between descriptive and inferential statistics?

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What does measurement refer to?

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How are qualitative variables defined?

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In research, why is it important to distinguish the type of variable?

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Which statement best describes a statistic?

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Which type of variable consists of values obtained by counting and can assume only a finite or countable number of values?

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What is an example of a continuous variable?

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What type of measurement scale classifies a variable into two or more categories, such as race or gender?

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Why do continuous data need to be measured and rounded off?

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Which variable is daily tonnage produced by a mining company an example of?

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Which measurement scale classifies a variable according to rank or order of categories?

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In which measurement scale is a zero value arbitrary and does not reflect the absence of an attribute?

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Which scale permits all mathematical operations with its measurements?

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Which measurement scale has equal units but an arbitrary zero value?

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Which scale represents the highest level of measurement precision?

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Which scale is used to measure attributes like volume, height, and weight?

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Which term refers to using data to summarize and describe characteristics of a dataset?

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Which type of variable can take on an infinite number of values within a given range?

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Which measurement scale would 'Height in centimeters' fall under?

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Which variable classification includes the categories 'short, average, tall'?

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What type of statistics involves making predictions or inferences about a population based on sample data?

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'Satisfaction on a certain government health program' classified as 'very much satisfied, much satisfied...' represents which type of variable?

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## Study Notes

### Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

- Descriptive statistics involves collecting, describing, and analyzing a set of data without drawing conclusions about a larger group.
- Inferential statistics involves making predictions or inferences about the entire set of data or forecasting future values.
- Inferential statistics has three main areas: estimation, hypothesis testing, and prediction.

### Population and Sample

- A population is a collection of all elements under consideration in a research study.
- A sample is a subset or representative of the population from which information is collected.
- A census involves collecting data from the entire population, which is often difficult or impossible to conduct.
- A survey involves collecting data from a sample.

### Parameters and Statistics

- A parameter is a numerical characteristic of a population.
- A statistic is a numerical characteristic of a sample.
- Parameters are estimated from the statistics measured in the sample.

### Variables and Measurement

- A variable is a characteristic or attribute that is observable or measurable on every individual or subject of study.
- Measurement is the process of obtaining a value of a variable.
- There are two main types of variables: qualitative and quantitative.

### Types of Variables

- Qualitative variables have characteristics that cannot be measured by numerical values but can be categorized into two or more categories.
- Quantitative variables have values that can be counted or measured with the use of measuring devices or through mathematical formula.
- Quantitative variables can be further classified into discrete and continuous variables.

### Scales of Measurement

- There are four levels of measurement scales: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.
- Nominal scale classifies a variable into two or more categories.
- Ordinal scale classifies a variable according to rank or order of categories.
- Interval scale has the properties of the ordinal scale where categories are broken down on a scale of equal units.
- Ratio scale has the properties of an interval scale but with a zero value indicating the absence of an attribute.

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