Comparison of Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity

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18 Questions

Which type of immunity relies on the administration of antibodies and does not trigger the recipient's immune response?

Passive immunity

What type of cells recognize reduced MHC 1 and kill the cell, particularly targeting cancer cells and virus-infected cells?

Natural Killer cells

Which T lymphocytes stimulate B cells to proliferate into plasma cells producing antibodies?

T helper cells

In the context of vaccination, what does passive immunity rely on?

Administration of antibodies

Which type of immunity involves the recipient mounting its response, producing antibodies and memory against specific antigens?

Active immunity

Which immunization practice involves inserting powder from crusts of smallpox lesions into the skin?

Powder from smallpox crusts into the skin

What is the main function of humoral immunity?

Recognize and attach to antigens on extracellular invaders

Which type of immune response is responsible for acting against cancer?

Cell Mediated Immunity

Which group of proteins do antibodies belong to?


What is the term for the specific region on antigens where antibodies bind?


How do antibodies recognize foreign invaders?

By attaching to specific antigenic regions on the invader

Which component of the immune system is responsible for directly killing infected cells?

Cytotoxic T cells

Which immune cells are responsible for producing antibodies against self antigens in Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus?

T cells

How do cytotoxic T cells contribute to the pathogenesis of Type 1 Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus?

Destroy beta cells

Which of the following is NOT a way to prevent disease spread in a community?

Avoiding physical exercise

How does the lymphatic system contribute to host defenses against pathogens?

By transporting immune cells

What is a primary function of immunization in disease prevention?

Enhancing the body's natural defenses

Why is early detection and isolation important in preventing disease transmission among a community?

To reduce morbidity rates

Study Notes

Immune Response

  • There are two types of immune responses: Humoral Immunity and Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI)
  • Humoral Immunity is effective against extracellular antigens, while CMI is effective against intracellular infections, viruses, mycobacteria, and cancer cells

Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI)

  • CMI involves two populations of T cells: Cytotoxic T cells (TC) and Natural Killer cells (NK cells)
  • Cytotoxic T cells (TC) recognize and destroy infected cells by releasing toxic molecules and initiating apoptosis
  • Natural Killer cells (NK cells) recognize reduced MHC 1 and kill infected cells or cancer cells

Cytotoxic T cells (TC)

  • Each TC is specific for one receptor and has a wide range of surface receptors against antigens (T cell receptors, TCR)
  • TC binds to infected cells expressing the specific antigen and destroys them

Natural Killer cells (NK cells)

  • NK cells recognize reduced MHC 1 and kill infected cells or cancer cells
  • NK cells kill by Antibody Dependant Cell Cytotoxicity (ADCC) or by detecting lack of MHC 1

Regulation of Immune Response

  • The activation of B and T cells is regulated by T lymphocytes (T cells)
  • T helper cells (TH) stimulate B cells to proliferate and produce antibodies
  • T regulator cells (TReg) inhibit TH and stop antibody production


  • Vaccination has been practiced in different forms for hundreds of years
  • Examples include variolation, Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine, and modern vaccines

Passive vs Active Immunity

  • Passive immunity involves administration of antibodies and provides short-term protection
  • Active immunity involves administration of antigens and provides long-term protection and immune memory

Autoimmune Disease

  • Autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system attacks self
  • Examples include Humoral Immunity and Cell Mediated Immunity

Humoral Immunity

  • Antibody-mediated immunity produced by B lymphocytes
  • Antibodies recognize and attach to antigens on foreign invaders
  • Antibodies are specialized proteins that belong to the Immunoglobulin group of proteins


  • Antigens stimulate the generation of antibodies
  • Antigens have specific regions called epitopes or antigenic determinants where antibodies bind

Complement Activation Pathway

  • Antibodies can activate the complement system at the surface of bacteria

Disease Types

  • Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) is an autoimmune disease that destroys β-cells in the pancreas

Explore the differences between humoral immunity, which involves antibodies produced by B lymphocytes to combat external threats, and cell-mediated immunity, which utilizes lymphocytes to target internal threats such as infected cells and cancer. Learn about the roles of antibodies and cytotoxic T cells in the immune response.

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