Common Health Problems in Preschoolers: Nursing Care for Childhood Leukemias and Wilm's Tumor

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30 Questions

What type of cancer is most frequent in children?

Leukemia

What is the main characteristic of malignant and cancerous cells?

Disorderly and chaotic growth

What is the recommended health promotion strategy to reduce cancer risk in children?

Applying sunscreen and reducing sun exposure

Which type of tumor is specifically mentioned as common in preschoolers?

Wilm's tumor (nephroblastoma)

What is the most common form of cancer in adults?

Solid tumor

Why do children who receive chemotherapy or radiation have a higher risk of developing another cancer later in life?

Side effects of treatments damaging healthy cells

What is the main reason that tumors in children most frequently occur in organs unexposed to the environment?

Accumulation of mutations in the cell

Which organ is commonly affected by nephroblastoma in children?

Kidney

What type of viruses have been implicated in causing leukemia?

Single-stranded RNA viruses

Why are neoplastic cells not reversible according to the somatic mutation theory?

Accumulation of mutations

Which virus is associated with Burkitt lymphoma?

EBV

What symptoms might lead parents to bring a child for cancer care according to the text?

Nosebleeds and constipation

What is the primary reason why malignant tissue grows in a disorderly manner?

It does not respond to normal growth-control mechanisms

What is the approximate size of a tumor mass when it is first detected by palpation?

30 times the size of its original aberrant cell

What type of tumor can cause damage by pressing on adjacent tissue?

Benign tumor

What is the typical cause of tumors in adults?

Chronic exposure to chemical irritants or cigarette smoke

What is the definition of NEOPLASM?

A new growth that does not respond to normal growth-control mechanisms

What is the most significant difference between benign and malignant tumors?

Benign tumors do not invade surrounding tissue, while malignant tumors do

Which diagnostic procedure is NOT typically used to confirm a diagnosis of a malignancy?

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

What is the purpose of tumor staging in the context of malignant tumors?

To design an effective treatment program and establish a prognosis

Which type of biopsy is frequently used with children?

Bone marrow aspiration

What is the significance of assessing height and weight in children during a physical examination for potential malignancy?

To detect any abnormalities that may indicate a malignancy

Which type of diagnostic procedure is considered minor surgery and is usually done on an ambulatory basis?

Biopsy

What is the purpose of knowing the stage of a tumor?

To design an effective treatment program and establish a prognosis

What are the localized effects of chemotherapy on the skin?

Erythema, tenderness, and maintaining skin integrity

What are the different administration routes for chemotherapeutic agents?

IV, PO, and IM/SQ

Which chemotherapeutic agents require special handling procedures?

Only those that need mixing

What are the symptoms of acute chemotherapy side effects?

Both A and B

What is the purpose of administering an antiemetic before chemotherapy?

To prevent nausea and vomiting before it starts

What is the primary function of cytotoxic precautions in chemotherapy?

To prevent skin, eye, and mucous membrane irritations

Study Notes

Nursing Care of a Family When a Child Has a Malignancy

  • Malignant cells grow and proliferate in a disorderly, chaotic fashion
  • In children, the most frequent type of cancer is leukemia, a type of immature white blood cell (WBC) overgrowth
  • Health promotion and risk management strategies include:
    • Reducing exposure to secondary cigarette smoke and urging adolescents not to begin smoking
    • Applying sunscreen and reducing sun exposure
    • Vaccinating both boys and girls against human papillomavirus (HPV)

Neoplasia

  • Neoplasm refers to a new abnormal growth that does not respond to normal growth-control mechanisms
  • Normal cells can recognize and communicate with each other to stop growth when crowded, but neoplastic cells do not respond or receive this communication
  • Neoplasms can be either benign (limited growth) or malignant (cancerous or unlimited growth)

Causes of Neoplastic Growth

  • Somatic mutation theory proposes that an accumulation of mutations in a cell leads to neoplastic transformation
  • Oncogenic viruses (cancer-causing viruses) such as HPV may be directly responsible for tumor growth
  • Exposure to environmental factors such as chemical irritants or cigarette smoke may contribute to neoplastic growth in adults

Assessing Children with Cancer

  • Many cancers in children have been developing for some time before symptoms appear
  • Symptoms may include bruising, nosebleeds, headache, pain in a knee, and constipation
  • Cachexia (loss of weight and anorexia) can occur if the tumor is growing rapidly and taking nutrients from normal cells

Cell Growth

  • Normal cells appear to recognize and communicate with each other to stop growth when crowded
  • Neoplastic cells do not respond to this communication or cannot receive it, so they continue to grow despite being crowded
  • By the time a tumor mass is detected, it is probably about 30 times the size of its original aberrant cell

Neoplastic Growth

  • Neoplasms can cause damage by pressing on adjacent tissue, even if they are benign
  • Brain tumors in children are often benign but can cause respiratory depression from increased pressure on the respiratory center

Physical and Laboratory Examination

  • Any suspicion of a malignancy requires a thorough physical examination
  • Assessing height and weight of children is an important component
  • Diagnostic procedures may include radiography (X-ray), ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), blood analysis, and biopsy

Biopsy

  • Biopsy is the surgical removal of tissue cells for laboratory analysis
  • It is classified as minor surgery and is usually done on an ambulatory basis
  • Bone marrow aspiration is a frequent type of biopsy used with children and is done with only local anesthesia

Staging

  • Tumor staging is a procedure that documents the extent and progress of a malignant tumor
  • Knowing the stage of a tumor helps the health care team design an effective treatment program, establish an accurate prognosis, and evaluate the progress or regression of the disease

Chemotherapy

  • Chemotherapeutic agents are drugs capable of destroying malignant cells
  • Chemotherapy is scheduled at intervals that increase the ability to destroy malignant cells throughout the cell cycle
  • Agents can be administered IV, PO, or IM/SQ and are classified into different categories
  • Cytotoxic precautions should be taken when handling chemotherapeutic agents, as they can cause acute skin, eye, and mucous membrane irritations, as well as nausea, headaches, and dizziness
  • Nausea and vomiting can be prevented by administering an antiemetic before chemotherapy and at 4- to 8-hour intervals during therapy

This quiz covers common health problems in preschoolers related to childhood leukemias and Wilm's tumor, including nursing care for families dealing with these malignancies. Learn about the characteristics, treatment, and care strategies for children with cancerous conditions.

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