Classical Conditioning in Infants
58 Questions
0 Views
3.7 Stars

Classical Conditioning in Infants

This quiz covers the topic of classical conditioning in young infants, focusing on how they can be influenced by stimuli with survival value, such as the association between feeding and other stimuli. The text also discusses the process of classical conditioning and the role of unconditioned stimuli and responses.

Created by
@BraveJubilation

Questions and Answers

What is the average height of a 1-year-old at the end of the first year?

81.28 cm

At what age do babies typically start to gain 'baby fat'?

9 months

Which group tends to have greater physical maturity based on skeletal age?

Girls

What is the typical weight of a 2-year-old?

<p>13.6 kg</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age can infants detect familiar objects represented by incomplete drawings even when most of the drawing is missing?

<p>12 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do 2-month-old babies prefer when compared to other complex patterns?

<p>Complex facial patterns</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age can infants identify races and show preference for faces of their own race if they are mostly exposed to them?

<p>3-6 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age can infants perceive emotional expressions on faces and discriminate positive emotions from negative emotions expressed by faces?

<p>5-6 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is intermodal stimulation?

<p>Simultaneous input from multiple sensory systems</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Gibsons’ Differentiation Theory, what do infants actively search for in the environment?

<p>Invariant features</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age can infants match faces with voices on the basis of lip-voice synchrony, emotional expression, age, and gender of the speaker?

<p>3-4 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

In classical conditioning, which of the following occurs naturally, without learning?

<p>Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What results from learning in classical conditioning and elicits Conditioned Response (CR)?

<p>Conditioned Stimulus (CS)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What refers to the gradual decrease in response to repeated stimulation, and is used to study infant memory and knowledge?

<p>Habituation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What involves infants acting on the environment, changing the probability of behavior?

<p>Operant conditioning</p> Signup and view all the answers

What occurs after habituation, when a new stimulus elicits a high response?

<p>Recovery</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which theory explains mastery of motor skills as acquiring increasingly complex systems of action?

<p>Dynamic Systems Theory of Motor Development</p> Signup and view all the answers

What skill involves control over larger movements in motor development?

<p>Gross motor skills</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which skill develops sequentially but not uniformly in motor development?

<p>Fine motor skills</p> Signup and view all the answers

What refers to the ability of newborns to copy behaviors, rooted in mirror neuron system?

<p>Imitation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What decreases the probability of behavior in operant conditioning?

<p>Punishment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What measures recent memory and familiarity preference measures remote memory?

<p>Familiarity preference</p> Signup and view all the answers

What impacts social relationships and cognitive capabilities?

<p>Motor development</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the cephalocaudal trend in human development?

<p>The head develops faster than the lower part of the body during the prenatal period</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the body grows later than the head and trunk in the proximodistal trend?

<p>Hands and feet</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are neurons responsible for during brain development?

<p>Forming dendrites, axons, and synapses</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of glial cells in brain development?

<p>Responsible for myelination and improving message transfer efficiency</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which method is used to measure brain functioning milestones?

<p>fMRI</p> Signup and view all the answers

What accounts for 85% of the brain's weight?

<p>Cerebral cortex</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which functions emerge later in prefrontal cortex development?

<p>Consciousness, impulse control, planning, and problem solving</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which term describes the brain's capacity for learning and recovery from damage?

<p>Brain plasticity</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Sensitive periods' in brain development refer to:

<p>Critical periods during which specific experiences have a long-lasting impact on brain development</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the concept of lateralization of the cerebral cortex?

<p>Tasks performed by different hemispheres of the brain</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Brain plasticity' refers to:

<p>'Malleable' nature of the cerebral cortex for learning and recovery from damage</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does 'sensitive periods' in brain development imply?

<p>Critical periods during which specific experiences have a long-lasting impact on brain development</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of brain development refers to the ordinary experiences necessary for normal brain development?

<p>Experience-expectant brain growth</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the additional growth and refinement of established brain structures due to specific learning experiences called?

<p>Experience-dependent brain growth</p> Signup and view all the answers

What leads to changes in sleep and wakefulness patterns in the first two years of life?

<p>Rapid brain growth</p> Signup and view all the answers

What promotes drowsiness at night in young children?

<p>Secretion of melatonin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What influences physical growth, with identical twins being much alike in body size?

<p>Heredity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is crucial for the first two years, providing the right kind of food for infant growth?

<p>Breastfeeding</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can cause physical symptoms and lasting damage to the brain, heart, liver, and internal organs?

<p>Malnutrition</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition is caused by a diet low in all nutrients and results in a wasted condition of the body?

<p>Marasmus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are infants capable of shortly after birth, allowing them to learn by observation?

<p>Imitation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is classical conditioning as a learning process where a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response known as?

<p>Classical conditioning</p> Signup and view all the answers

What form of learning allows infants to anticipate what is about to happen, making the world more predictable?

<p>Classical conditioning</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do infants' perceptual development coincide with?

<p>Motor skill development</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of grasp is not part of reaching and grasping development in infants?

<p>Power grasp</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does depth perception enhance in infants?

<p>Motor skills</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do infants prefer looking at as their contrast sensitivity improves?

<p>Complex patterns</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is influenced by infants' experiences with depth perception, such as crawling?

<p>Motor skill development</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do infants' visual abilities mature rapidly enabling them to focus on?

<p>Human faces</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does reaching and grasping play a significant role in for infant cognitive development?

<p>Problem-solving skills</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which combination results in each new motor skill of an infant?

<p>CNS development, body's movement capacity, child's goals, and environmental supports</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which skill does not undergo major improvements from gross to fine movements in infant cognitive development?

<p>Talking</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the mastery of ulnar, pincer, and manipulative grasps contribute to in infants?

<p>Cognitive abilities</p> Signup and view all the answers

What enhances infants' awareness of the consequences of their movements?

<p>Depth perception</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which ability improves rapidly in infants enabling them to distinguish sounds and musical patterns?

<p>Hearing abilities</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

  • The text discusses the impact of appropriate stimulation on brain development in young children.

  • Two types of brain development are identified: experience-expectant and experience-dependent.

  • Experience-expectant brain growth refers to ordinary experiences necessary for normal brain development, such as seeing and touching objects, hearing sounds.

  • Experience-dependent brain growth is the additional growth and refinement of established brain structures due to specific learning experiences.

  • For the first five or six years, there is no evidence of sensitive periods for changing states of arousal.

  • Rapid brain growth in the first two years leads to changes in sleep and wakefulness patterns, with a decline in fussiness and crying.

  • Sleep needs decline from 18 to 12 hours a day by age 2.

  • The sleep-wake pattern increasingly conforms to a night-day schedule, with the secretion of melatonin promoting drowsiness at night.

  • Influences on early growth include heredity and nutrition.

  • Heredity influences physical growth, with identical twins being much alike in body size.

  • Nutrition is crucial for the first two years, with breastfeeding providing the right kind of food for infant growth.

  • Malnutrition, particularly in developing countries and war-torn areas, can cause physical symptoms and lasting damage to the brain, heart, liver, and internal organs.

  • Malnutrition can be categorized as marasmus (wasted condition of the body caused by a diet low in all nutrients) and kwashiorkor (caused by an unbalanced diet very low in protein).

  • Affection and stimulation are necessary for healthy physical growth and vital as food.

  • Infants are capable of two forms of learning: classical conditioning and operant conditioning, as well as learning through natural preference for novel stimulation.

  • Shortly after birth, babies learn by observation (imitation).

  • Classical conditioning is a learning process where a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response.

  • With classical conditioning, infants can anticipate what is about to happen, making the world more predictable.

  • Motor skills develop as dynamic systems, where separate abilities blend together, enhancing each other. example: head and upper chest control lead to sitting.

  • Each new motor skill results from a combination of CNS development, body's movement capacity, child's goals, and environmental supports.

  • Reaching and grasping play a significant role in infant cognitive development and undergo major improvements from gross to fine movements.

  • Reaching and grasping development includes the mastery of ulnar, pincer, and manipulative grasps.

  • Infants' perceptual development, particularly in hearing and vision, coincides with motor skill development.

  • Infants' hearing abilities progress from distinguishing sounds and musical patterns to recognizing words in speech.

  • Infants' visual abilities mature rapidly, enabling them to focus on objects, recognize colors, and develop depth perception.

  • Depth perception is influenced by sensitivity to various motion and visual cues and enhances infants' awareness of the consequences of their movements.

  • Infants prefer looking at complex patterns as their contrast sensitivity improves, indicating their growing visual abilities.

  • Infants' experiences with depth perception, such as crawling, contribute to their understanding of the world and their own physical abilities.

  • Infants' preference for complex patterns, as indicated by Contrast Sensitivity, reflects their growing ability to distinguish fine features in visual stimuli.

Studying That Suits You

Use AI to generate personalized quizzes and flashcards to suit your learning preferences.

Quiz Team

More Quizzes Like This

Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser