Chomsky's Universal Grammar Theory

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What is Platonism in the context of linguistics, and what kind of objects do Platonists believe exist?

Platonism is the view that abstract objects exist outside of the physical realm. These objects are non-physical and non-mental, and do not exist in space or time.

Which camp does Katz think Chomsky belongs to, and what is Katz's own stance?

Katz thinks Chomsky is in camp 2, while Katz himself is in camp 3.

What is a major methodological difference between Platonist linguistics and other frameworks in linguistics?

Platonist linguistics is based on linguistic intuitions of speakers, whereas other frameworks prioritize the collection of actual performance data.

What is a problem that Platonism inherits from Cartesianism and traditional Platonism?

The problem of the casual interaction between the physical and non-physical realms, also known as the mind-body problem.

What is an area where Platonism might be a suitable grounding?

Mathematics and logic.

Why might Katz think that Chomskyan linguistics is the right methodology?

Because Katz is a Platonist and assumes that Chomskyan linguistics is the correct approach.

What is the essential characteristic of all representations according to the text?

Representations are messages sent from a producer to one or more consumers.

What is the relationship between a representation and external states, according to the text?

The representations must correspond to certain external states in a systematic way.

What is the concept introduced by Millikan, according to the text?

Conventions that are not tied to specific groups but are patterns of activities reproduced and proliferated due to tradition.

What is the primary function of coordinating functions in language conventions, according to the text?

To aid in communication and understanding between speakers and hearers.

What is a key characteristic of conventional patterns, according to the text?

They are arbitrary and conditional, not rules.

What is the role of reproduction in language, according to the text?

Replicating language forms, which can occur unconsciously and indirectly.

What is the primary function of the human language faculty, according to Millikan's theory of language?

to support linguistic conventions, and these conventions have an essentially communicative function

How does Millikan describe public language?

as a sprawling mass of overlapping and crisscrossing linguistic conventions that are reproduced and proliferated through tradition

What is the analogy that Millikan draws to explain how we type or individuate words?

an analogy with how we classify biological species

What does Millikan mean by 'words as species'?

that words can be seen as forming lineages or evolving over time, similar to biological species

What is the purpose of joint action, according to the text?

to achieve a common goal through the contributions of multiple participants

What is a key characteristic of joint action, as described in the text?

the contribution of each participant depends crucially on the contributions made by the other(s)

What is the basic idea behind Chomsky's theory of universal grammar?

All languages hold similar structures and rules, and there are formal universals and principles in common with specific options and limits for variation in grammar and features between languages.

What does Chomsky think is the nature of language?

Language is a state of the language faculty, a learned state of an individual's brain that generates the rules of their language.

What is the difference between I-Language and E-Language?

I-Language refers to the internal cognitive structures and mechanisms that underlie an individual's linguistic competence, while E-Language refers to the observable instances of language use in social interactions and communication.

What is language competence according to Chomsky?

Language competence refers to the internalized knowledge of language, which encompasses the mental representations and rules that govern language use and understanding.

What is the theory of Universal Grammar proposing?

The theory of Universal Grammar proposes that the ability to learn grammar is hard-wired into the brain, and that all languages possess the same set of categories and relations.

What is the Poverty of Stimulus argument?

The Poverty of Stimulus argument is that the linguistic input received by young children is insufficient to explain their detailed knowledge of their first language, and therefore people must be born with an innate ability to learn a language.

What is the difference between acquiring a language and learning a language according to Chomsky?

Acquiring a language refers to the process of innate knowledge of language, while learning a language refers to the process of receiving linguistic input from the environment.

What is the rationalist response to the Poverty of Stimulus argument?

The rationalist response is that human children have innate knowledge of language, such as universal grammar, with which they are born.

What is the significance of I-Language in Chomsky's theory?

I-Language is significant because it refers to the internal cognitive structures and mechanisms that underlie an individual's linguistic competence, and is innate and specific to each individual.

What is the goal of linguistics according to Chomsky?

The goal of linguistics is to study the internal cognitive structures and mechanisms that underlie an individual's linguistic competence, with the hope of mapping this to the brain.

What is the main criterion for determining whether two word tokens are instances of the same word or different words?

tracing their lineages and histories of reproduction

What is the primary function of language conventions according to Millikan?

supporting effective communication between speakers and hearers

What is the role of the language faculty in Millikan's view?

enabling the proliferation of communicative language conventions

What is the significance of a word's lineage or history of reproduction in determining its identity?

it is what makes a word the same word, regardless of its physical or acoustic form

How does Millikan's view of language conventions account for changes in words over time?

words can change properties over time and still be the same words, like species

What is learned when acquiring a language, according to Millikan?

both the settings of an I-language from UG and conventions that have been sustained in the community over generations

Explore Chomsky's theory of universal grammar, which proposes that all languages share similar structures and rules. Learn how this theory influences our understanding of language and its features.

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