Chemistry of Behavior
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Chemistry of Behavior

Test your knowledge of the chemistry of behavior and receptor features with this quiz. Learn about neurotransmitters, basic pharmacology, and different types of receptors including ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Challenge yourself to understand fast-acting changes in Vm and the slow but powerful effects of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs).

Created by
@StrongerLlama

Questions and Answers

Which type of receptor is known for its fast-acting changes in membrane voltage (Vm)?

Ionotropic receptor

What type of receptor activates intracellular signaling cascades and has slow but powerful and diverse effects?

Metabotropic receptor

Which type of receptor indirectly opens ion channels, changes ion channel conductivity, and alters gene expression?

Metabotropic receptor

Which type of receptor can have multiple effects, respond to multiple neurotransmitters, and interact within/across neuron populations to alter signaling in complex ways?

<p>Metabotropic receptor</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of receptor is known for its mRNA distribution in the human brain and the presence of receptor subtypes?

<p>Opioid receptor</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of neurotransmitters in transmitting information between neurons?

<p>Release information when APs reach axon terminals</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a criterion for neurotransmitters?

<p>Synthesized in glial cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a criterion for neurotransmitters?

<p>Recognized by receptors on the postsynaptic membrane</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many neurotransmitter criteria are mentioned in the text?

<p>Three</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or False: A given neurotransmitter system can only act on one receptor subtype.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter involved in every function and plays a key role in memory formation?

<p>Glutamate</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is the most widely distributed inhibitory neurotransmitter that controls excitability?

<p>GABA</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is used at the neuromuscular junction and is released by the parasympathetic nervous system?

<p>Acetylcholine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is found in the mesostriatal pathway and is associated with motor control loss in Parkinson's disease?

<p>Dopamine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is involved in reward, reinforcement, and associative learning and is associated with abnormalities in schizophrenia?

<p>Dopamine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is involved in alertness, emotion, stress/anxiety, and attention?

<p>Norepinephrine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is synthesized in the raphe nuclei and is involved in mood, anxiety, and sexual behavior?

<p>Serotonin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which class of neurotransmitters consists of chains of typically 10 or more amino acids and has dedicated, specific behavioral functions?

<p>Neuropeptides</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which class of neurotransmitters are usually produced outside axon terminals, do not require receptors, and often travel from postsynaptic back to presynaptic neurons?

<p>Gases</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for a substance that binds to a receptor?

<p>Ligand</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following statements about agonists and antagonists is true?

<p>Agonists have high efficacy; antagonists have low efficacy.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the combination of affinity and efficacy determine?

<p>The overall action of a drug.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the term 'ED50' refer to?

<p>The dose that shows half of its maximal effect.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does it mean if a drug has a lower ED50 compared to another drug?

<p>The drug is more potent.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)?

<p>To protect the brain from toxins/pathogens in the blood.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the reduced effectiveness of a drug after repeated treatments?

<p>Tolerance</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two key forms of tolerance?

<p>Metabolic tolerance and functional tolerance.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens during down-regulation in the context of drug tolerance?

<p>There are fewer receptors available for the drug.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is cross-tolerance?

<p>Tolerance to one drug is generalized to other drugs in its class.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following drugs act at GABAA receptors and may show cross-tolerance with alcohol?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of receptor is known for its fast-acting changes in membrane voltage ($V_m$)?

<p>Ionotropic receptor</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for a substance that binds to a receptor?

<p>Ligand</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is involved in alertness, emotion, stress/anxiety, and attention?

<p>Serotonin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)?

<p>To protect the brain from foreign substances</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is found in the mesostriatal pathway and is associated with motor control loss in Parkinson's disease?

<p>Dopamine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following statements about agonists and antagonists is true?

<p>Agonists increase receptor activity, while antagonists decrease receptor activity.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of receptor indirectly opens ion channels, changes ion channel conductivity, and alters gene expression?

<p>Metabotropic receptor</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is synthesized in the raphe nuclei and is involved in mood, anxiety, and sexual behavior?

<p>Serotonin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is involved in reward, reinforcement, and associative learning and is associated with abnormalities in schizophrenia?

<p>Dopamine</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the reduced effectiveness of a drug after repeated treatments?

<p>Cross-tolerance</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter involved in every function and plays a key role in memory formation?

<p>Glutamate</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is the most widely distributed inhibitory neurotransmitter that controls excitability?

<p>GABA</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is involved in reward, reinforcement, and associative learning and is associated with abnormalities in schizophrenia?

<p>Dopamine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is synthesized in the raphe nuclei and is involved in mood, anxiety, and sexual behavior?

<p>Serotonin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of receptor is known for its fast-acting changes in membrane voltage (Vm)?

<p>Ionotropic receptors</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of receptor activates intracellular signaling cascades and has slow but powerful and diverse effects?

<p>Metabotropic receptors</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is used at the neuromuscular junction and is released by the parasympathetic nervous system?

<p>Acetylcholine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is found in the mesostriatal pathway and is associated with motor control loss in Parkinson's disease?

<p>Dopamine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is involved in alertness, emotion, stress/anxiety, and attention?

<p>Norepinephrine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which class of neurotransmitters consists of chains of typically 10 or more amino acids and has dedicated, specific behavioral functions?

<p>Neuropeptides</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following accurately describes the relationship between agonists and antagonists?

<p>Agonists have high efficacy; antagonists have low efficacy.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for a drug that produces a medium response regardless of dose?

<p>Partial agonist</p> Signup and view all the answers

What determines the overall action of a drug?

<p>Combination of affinity and efficacy</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the term 'ED50' refer to?

<p>The dose that shows half of the drug's maximal effect</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following statements about nonmonotonic dose-response curves (DRCs) is true?

<p>As dose increases, the drug starts to have effect elsewhere in the system.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the amount of a drug in the body that is free to act?

<p>Bioavailability</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a factor that affects the movement of a drug through the body?

<p>Pharmacodynamics</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the reduced effectiveness of a drug after repeated treatments?

<p>Tolerance</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two key forms of tolerance?

<p>Metabolic tolerance and functional tolerance</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for tolerance to one drug being generalized to other drugs in its class?

<p>Cross-tolerance</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of receptor is known for its slow but powerful and diverse effects, and can indirectly open ion channels, change ion channel conductivity, and alter gene expression?

<p>Metabotropic receptor</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is involved in mood, anxiety, and sexual behavior, and is synthesized in the raphe nuclei?

<p>Serotonin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which class of neurotransmitters consists of chains of typically 10 or more amino acids and has dedicated, specific behavioral functions?

<p>Peptides</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is the most widely distributed inhibitory neurotransmitter that controls excitability?

<p>GABA</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the term 'ED50' refer to?

<p>Effective dose for 50% of the population</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following accurately describes the relationship between agonists and antagonists?

<p>Agonists and antagonists have opposite effects on neurotransmitters.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the combination of affinity and efficacy determine?

<p>The potency of a drug</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two key forms of tolerance?

<p>Physical and psychological tolerance</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many neurotransmitter criteria are mentioned in the text?

<p>Three</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or False: A given neurotransmitter system can act on many receptor subtypes.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following neurotransmitters is involved in every function and plays a key role in memory formation?

<p>Glutamate</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of receptor is known for its fast-acting changes in membrane voltage ($V_m$)?

<p>Ionotropic receptors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)?

<p>To protect the brain from foreign substances</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following accurately describes the relationship between agonists and antagonists?

<p>Agonists have high efficacy; antagonists have low efficacy.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which class of neurotransmitters consists of chains of typically 10 or more amino acids and has dedicated, specific behavioral functions?

<p>Neuropeptides</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the reduced effectiveness of a drug after repeated treatments?

<p>Tolerance</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is used at the neuromuscular junction and is released by the parasympathetic nervous system?

<p>Acetylcholine</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for a drug that produces a medium response regardless of dose?

<p>Partial agonist</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following accurately describes the relationship between two drugs with different Effective Dose 50% (ED50) values?

<p>The drug with the lower ED50 is more potent.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is involved in reward, reinforcement, and associative learning and is associated with abnormalities in schizophrenia?

<p>Dopamine</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)?

<p>To protect the brain from toxins/pathogens in the blood.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a factor that affects the movement of a drug through the body?

<p>Metabolic tolerance</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for tolerance to one drug being generalized to other drugs in its class?

<p>Cross-tolerance</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does it mean if a drug has a nonmonotonic dose-response curve (DRC)?

<p>As the dose increases, the drug starts to have effects elsewhere in the system.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of receptor activates intracellular signaling cascades and has slow but powerful and diverse effects?

<p>Metabotropic receptors</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following accurately describes the relationship between agonist drugs and functional tolerance?

<p>Agonist drugs can up-regulate the number of receptors available.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the term 'ED50' refer to?

<p>The dose of a drug that produces a therapeutic effect in 50% of the population</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is cross-tolerance?

<p>Tolerance to one drug is generalized to other drugs in its class.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What determines the overall action of a drug?

<p>Combination of affinity and efficacy.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many neurotransmitter criteria are mentioned in the text?

<p>4</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following neurotransmitters with their primary functions:

<p>Glutamate = Most common excitatory NT, key role in memory formation GABA = Most widely distributed inhibitory NT, controls excitability Acetylcholine = Learning/memory processes, NT used at neuromuscular junction Dopamine = Motor control, reward, reinforcement, and associative learning</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the neurotransmitter with the corresponding receptor:

<p>Glutamate = AMPA, NMDA, kainate, Metabotropic Glu receptors GABA = GABAA, GABAB receptors Acetylcholine = Nicotinic ACh receptor, Muscarinic ACh receptor Dopamine = D1-like receptors, D2-like receptors</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the neurotransmitter with its origin:

<p>Acetylcholine = Basal forebrain Dopamine = Substantia nigra, VTA Norepinephrine = Locus coeruleus, Lateral tegmental area Serotonin = Raphe nuclei</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the type of ligand with its effect on the receptor:

<p>Agonist = Initiates normal effects of the transmitter on that receptor Antagonist = Binds to a receptor and does not activate it, prevents binding by other ligands Inverse agonist = Initiates the reverse of the normal effect</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the type of drug competition with its definition:

<p>Competitive = Drug directly competes with endogenous ligand at binding site Noncompetitive = Drug does not directly compete, binds to modulatory site instead</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the term with its definition in neuropharmacology:

<p>Binding affinity = Degree of chemical attraction between ligand and receptor Efficacy = Ability of a bound ligand to activate the receptor Ligand = A substance that binds to a receptor</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the neuropeptides with their functions:

<p>Endorphins, enkephalins = Reward/pleasure, control of pain Oxytocin, vasopressin = Reproductive behavior, socialization Neuropeptide Y = Feeding</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the gases with their characteristics:

<p>Nitric oxide, carbon monoxide = Produced outside axon terminals, do not require receptors, often retrograde transmitters</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the neurotransmitter classes with their examples:

<p>Amino acids = GABA, glutamate Amines = Acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine Neuropeptides = Endorphins, dynorphins, enkephalins, oxytocin, vasopressin, neuropeptide Y Gases = Nitric oxide, carbon monoxide</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the catecholamines with their functions:

<p>Dopamine = Motor control, reward, reinforcement, and associative learning Norepinephrine = Alertness, emotion, stress/anxiety, attention</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following types of receptors with their characteristics:

<p>Ionotropic receptor = Fast-acting changes in Vm Metabotropic receptors = Activate intracellular signaling cascades Opioid receptor = mRNA distribution in human brain GABAA receptor = Major subtype</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following receptor features with their definitions:

<p>Differ in anatomical distribution = Receptor subtypes can be found in different parts of the body Work with different ions = Receptor subtypes can interact with various ions Respond to multiple NTs = Receptor subtypes can react to more than one type of neurotransmitter Interact within/across neuron populations = Receptor subtypes can alter signaling in complex ways</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms with their definitions:

<p>Endogenous = Naturally occurring, originating from organism itself Neurotransmitter (NT) = Endogenous chemical specialized for transmitting information between neurons Axon terminals = Location where neurotransmitters are stored Postsynaptic membrane = Recognizes neurotransmitters and undergoes changes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following neurotransmitter criteria with their definitions:

<p>Stored in axon terminals = Neurotransmitters are kept in specific parts of the neuron Synthesized in neurons = Neurotransmitters are produced within the neuron Released when APs reach axon terminals = Neurotransmitters are let out when action potentials reach certain parts of the neuron Evokes changes in a postsynaptic cell = Neurotransmitters cause alterations in the cell receiving the signal</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms related to receptors with their definitions:

<p>Ionotropic receptor = A receptor that is a ligand-gated ion channel and causes fast-acting changes in Vm Metabotropic receptors = Also known as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), these activate intracellular signaling cascades Opioid receptor = A receptor known for its mRNA distribution in the human brain Receptor diversity = A concept that refers to the fact that a given neurotransmitter system can act on many receptor subtypes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms with their definitions:

<p>Signal amplification = A process that increases the impact of a particular signal Gene expression = The process by which information from a gene is used to produce a functional product Ion channel conductivity = The ability of an ion channel to allow ions to pass through Receptor subtypes = Different versions of a receptor that can vary in function and location</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms with their definitions:

<p>Fast-acting changes in Vm = Quick alterations in membrane voltage Slow but powerful and diverse effects = Characteristic of metabotropic receptors mRNA distribution in human brain = Characteristic of opioid receptors Major GABAA receptor subtypes = Specific versions of GABAA receptors</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms with their definitions:

<p>Endogenous = Produced or originating from within a cell or organism Neurotransmitter = A chemical substance that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse Receptor subtypes = Different versions of a receptor that can vary in function and location Signal amplification = The process by which the effect of a particular signal is increased</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms with their definitions:

<p>Receptor diversity = The concept that a given neurotransmitter system can act on many receptor subtypes Opioid receptor = A receptor with mRNA distribution in the human brain Metabotropic receptors = Also known as G-protein coupled receptors, these receptors activate intracellular signaling cascades Ionotropic receptor = A receptor that is a ligand-gated ion channel and causes fast-acting changes in Vm</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms with their definitions:

<p>Endogenous = Naturally occurring, originating from organism itself Neurotransmitter (NT) = Endogenous chemical specialized for transmitting information between neurons Ionotropic receptor = A receptor that is a ligand-gated ion channel and causes fast-acting changes in Vm Metabotropic receptors = Also known as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), these receptors activate intracellular signaling cascades</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms with their definitions:

<p>Agonists = Drugs that have high efficacy Antagonists = Drugs that have low efficacy Partial agonists = Drugs that produce a medium response regardless of dose Nonmonotonic DRC = A dose-response curve where the effect of a drug starts to change as dose increases</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the terms with their definitions:

<p>Bioavailability = Amount of drug in body that is free to act PO = Peroral route of administration SC = Subcutaneous route of administration IM = Intramuscular route of administration</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the terms to their definitions:

<p>ED50 = Dose that shows half of its maximal effect Pharmacodynamics = The functional relationship between drugs and their targets Pharmacokinetics = Factors that affect movement of a drug through the body Dose-response curve (DRC) = Graph of the relationship between drug doses and effects</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms with their definitions:

<p>Metabolic tolerance = Tolerance form where organ systems become more effective at eliminating drug Functional tolerance = Tolerance form where the tissue targeted by drug alters its sensitivity Down-regulate = Fewer receptors available, often as a response to agonist drugs Up-regulate = More receptors available, often as a response to antagonist drugs</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms with their definitions:

<p>Cross-tolerance = Tolerance to one drug is generalized to other drugs in its class Blood-brain barrier (BBB) = Tight junctions around blood vessels in the CNS that protects the brain from toxins/pathogens in blood Nanoparticles = Special molecules designed to get drugs past the BBB Trojan horses = Nickname for nanoparticles used to bypass the BBB</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms with their definitions:

<p>Agonists = Drugs that bind to and activate a receptor, producing an effect Antagonists = Drugs that bind to a receptor but do not activate it. Instead, they block the receptor from being activated by agonists Partial agonists = Drugs that bind to and activate a receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist ED50 = The dose of a drug that produces 50% of the drug's maximal effect</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms with their definitions:

<p>Affinity = The degree to which a drug binds to a receptor Efficacy = The ability of a drug to produce a response when it binds to a receptor Agonist = A drug that has both affinity and efficacy at a given receptor Antagonist = A drug that has affinity but no efficacy at a given receptor</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following abbreviations with their meanings:

<p>PO = Peroral SC = Subcutaneous IM = Intramuscular IV = Intravenous</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms with their definitions:

<p>Functional tolerance = A form of tolerance where the tissue targeted by a drug alters its sensitivity Metabolic tolerance = A form of tolerance where organ systems become more effective at eliminating a drug Cross-tolerance = A phenomenon where tolerance to one drug is generalized to other drugs in its class Down-regulation = A decrease in the number of receptors, often as a response to agonist drugs</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms with their definitions:

<p>Up-regulation = An increase in the number of receptors, often as a response to antagonist drugs ED50 = The dose of a drug that produces 50% of the drug's maximal effect Affinity = The degree to which a drug binds to a receptor Efficacy = The ability of a drug to produce a response when it binds to a receptor</p> Signup and view all the answers

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