Neurophys 1 Quiz

PlayfulHarmony avatar
PlayfulHarmony
·
·
Download

Start Quiz

Study Flashcards

51 Questions

Which part of the nervous system allows cells of the immune system to enter and exit more freely?

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Where are collections of neuronal cell bodies found in the peripheral nervous system?

Dorsal root ganglia

Which part of the nervous system has fewer neuronal cell bodies?

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Where are collections of neuronal cell bodies found in the central nervous system?

Basal nuclei

Which part of the cerebral cortex forms a relatively thin layer superficially?

Gray matter

In which part of the nervous system can axons/nerves sometimes regenerate after damage?

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Which type of cells form a multi-layer lipid coat that 'insulates' axons in the central nervous system?

Oligodendrocytes

Where are myelinated axons found in the nervous system?

Both in the PNS and CNS

What is the main component of areas in the central nervous system that have relatively few myelinated axons?

Neuronal and glial cell bodies

What is the function of dendrites in a neuron?

Receiving inputs from other neurons

Where are large tracts usually found in the nervous system?

White matter

What determines whether a neuron will send a signal down the axon?

The integration of inputs in axon hillock

Which cranial nerves control PaNS for the heart, lungs, and majority of the GI system?

CN X

Which nervous system decreases heart rate and cardiac output?

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Where are the ganglia located for the Sacral nerves of the Parasympathetic Nervous System?

Closer to target organs

Which system decreases digestive function and increases glucose availability?

Sympathetic Nervous System

Which cranial nerves control PaNS over pupillary muscles?

CN III

Which nervous system increases blood flow to the digestive tract?

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Which part of the neuron is responsible for action potentials?

Axon hillock

What type of neurons can be myelinated by Schwann cells?

PNS of neurons

Which part of the nervous system involves afferent nerves for sensory information?

Sensory system

What does the motor system control in addition to skeletal muscles?

Autonomic nervous system

Where do efferents carry information from?

Central nervous system to the peripheral nervous system

Which glial cell type plays a critical role in forming and strengthening synapses, regulating ion concentration, and providing structural support in the CNS?

Astrocytes

Which cells remove cellular debris, monitor the environment, and fight pathogens in the CNS?

Microglia

What is the function of oligodendrocytes in the CNS?

Wrapping around axons to form myelin sheath

Which cells regulate the production and filtiration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Ependymal cells

What is the role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the CNS?

Isolating the CNS from immune cells and toxins

Which part of the neuron is the site of protein synthesis?

Neuronal cell body (soma)

Microglial cells are the only immune cells allowed into CNS

True

What would happen if end-feet of astrocytes were to be damaged?

BBB would become leaky

There are as many microglial cells in the CNS as neurons

True

What type of cell is the most numerous in CNS?

Astrocytes

Waves of calcium in the brain can cause......

Depolarization of astrocytes

Which of the following is made of strong fibrous connective tissue that surrounds nerves?

Epineurium

Which of the following can regulate what moves into fascicles?

Perineurium

Endoneurium is a delicate CT layer that surrounds individual axons

True

What is the main function of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system?

Forming the myelin sheath for axons within fascicles

What is the role of satellite cells in the peripheral nervous system?

Surrounding, protecting, and nourishing neuronal cell bodies located in ganglia

Which cells form the Blood-Nerve Barrier (BNB) in the peripheral nervous system?

Perineurium cells and capillaries' endothelial cells

Which component of the neuron is responsible for protein synthesis?

Nissl substance in the neuronal cell body

What is the main difference between Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes?

Each Schwann cell myelinates one axon, while each oligodendrocyte myelinates multiple nearby axons

What is the function of the Blood-Nerve Barrier (BNB) in the peripheral nervous system?

Actively regulating the movement of ions and immune cells into the fascicles

What is the site of a unique electrical phenomenon of the cell membrane known as an action potential?

Axon hillock, axon, and synaptic terminals

Which type of neurons have a distal process that either interacts with a sensory receptor or serves as a sensory receptor?

Pseudo-unipolar neurons

What type of neurons are typical of neurons that detect the special senses such as vision, hearing, and smell?

Bipolar neurons

What are the myelin-free segments known as, which are crucial to action potential generation?

Nodes of Ranvier

Which type of neurons are typical of dorsal root ganglion cells involved in somatic sensation?

Pseudo-unipolar neurons

What are the sites of a unique electrical phenomenon of the cell membrane known as an action potential?

Axon hillock, axon, and synaptic terminals

What type of dendritic spine is the most effective at relaying information?

Mushroom

Sacral nerves house all of the visceral efferents of the bowel, reproductive organs and the kidney

True

Study Notes

Central Nervous System Histology

  • Basal nuclei are often called basal ganglia, containing axons, neuronal, and glial cell bodies.
  • Glial cell types in the CNS include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia.
  • Astrocytes play a critical role in CNS physiology, forming and strengthening synapses, regulating ion concentration, and providing structural support.
  • Astrocytes are interconnected via gap junctions, facilitating calcium waves and general depolarization, which may enhance neuronal signaling and neuroplasticity.
  • Oligodendrocytes wrap around axons, forming myelin sheath to increase the speed and efficiency of action potential conduction.
  • Microglial cells remove cellular debris, monitor the environment, and fight pathogens in the CNS.
  • The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) produced by the choroid plexus and circulated through the ventricular system.
  • CSF production is regulated by ependymal cells and selectively transports water, electrolytes, and nutrients from blood to CSF.
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) isolates the CNS from immune cells, noxious wastes, toxins, and pathogens, with astrocytes playing a crucial role in maintaining its integrity.
  • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) contains Schwann cells, satellite cells, and a blood-nerve barrier (BNB) that regulates the movement of ions and immune cells into the fascicles.
  • Dendrites are the input area of neurons, with dendritic spines forming synapses with axon terminals to carry information to the rest of the neuron.
  • The neuronal cell body, or soma, is the site of protein synthesis, containing Nissl substance, microtubules, actin microfilaments, and neurofilaments for structural stability and protein synthesis.

Test your knowledge of central nervous system histology with this quiz. Explore the structure and functions of key components such as basal nuclei, glial cells, cerebrospinal fluid, and the blood-brain barrier. Challenge yourself with questions about neuronal anatomy and the peripheral nervous system.

Make Your Own Quizzes and Flashcards

Convert your notes into interactive study material.

Get started for free

More Quizzes Like This

Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser