Cellular Membrane Lipids Quiz

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35 Questions

What is the precursor of steroid hormones, vitamin D, and bile acids?

Cholesterol

Which lipid is the simplest phospholipid?

Phospholipid

What are the structural features shared by phospholipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol?

Hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails

Which lipid is formed by the combination of two phospholipids?

Cholesterol

What are the functions of flippases in cells?

Aiding in lipid transport between membrane leaflets

Which biochemical property is associated with lipid rafts in cellular membranes?

Rich in sphingolipids and cholesterol

What is the rate limiting step in bile acid synthesis?

Conversion of cholesterol to 7-alpha hydroxycholesterol

When intracellular cholesterol levels are low, is HMG CoA reductase phosphorylated or unphosphorylated?

Phosphorylated

Where is SCAP-SREBP located when cholesterol levels are low?

In the endoplasmic reticulum

What is the mechanism of action of statins?

Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by targeting HMG CoA reductase

Which organ STORES bile acids and bile salts?

Liver

What is the common feature among all cellular membrane lipids?

Exposed polar head group

Which lipid class is primarily synthesized in the Golgi apparatus?

Sphingolipids

What is the function of lipid flippases in cellular membranes?

Move lipids to the inner leaflet

Which lipid is the only phospholipid that is antigenic, meaning it is immunogenic?

Cardiolipin

In apoptosis, what is one of the hallmarks observed on the outer face of the plasma membrane?

Exposure of phosphatidylcholine

What is the primary difference between apoptosis and necrosis?

Energy dependence

'Ceramide' in sphingolipids consists of which two components attached by an amide linkage?

'Sphingosine and fatty acid'

'Phosphatidylethanolamine' belongs to which class of lipids?

'Phospholipids'

'Mitomycin C' is known for inducing which process in cells?

'Apoptosis'

What is the function of 'Scramblase' in cellular membranes?

Move lipids bi-directionally

What is the function of phosphatidylserine exposure during apoptosis?

Recognition and uptake of apoptotic cells by phagocytes

Which process moves phosphatidylserine from the cytoplasmic face to the extracellular face of the plasma membrane during apoptosis?

An ATP-dependent scramblase

What is a characteristic feature of lipid rafts in cellular membranes?

Ordered regions distinct from disordered non-raft regions

What is the role of lipid rafts in cellular functions?

Immune receptor signaling

How does phosphatidylserine on apoptotic bodies help in clearance by phagocytes?

Triggering engulfment by phagocytes

What type of proteins specifically partition to lipid rafts?

Proteins with lipid anchors or modifications

Which organelle is primarily responsible for the synthesis of cholesterol?

Endoplasmic reticulum

What is the primary function of HMG CoA reductase in cholesterol synthesis?

Regulate the rate-limiting step of cholesterol synthesis

Which enzyme is responsible for the two-step cleavage of SREBP during cholesterol synthesis regulation?

Protease 2

What is the role of SCAP (SREBP Cleavage Activating Protein) in cholesterol synthesis regulation?

Senses intracellular cholesterol levels

How do statins primarily affect cholesterol synthesis?

Competitively inhibit HMG CoA reductase

What effect does glucagon have on HMGR expression and activity?

Inhibits HMGR expression and activity

Which drug primarily acts at the small intestine brush border to inhibit cholesterol absorption?

Zetia (ezetimibe)

What is a key advantage of using Zetia (ezetimibe) in reducing cholesterol levels?

Does not have significant side effects

Test your knowledge on the three general classes of lipids that compose cellular membranes: Phospholipids, Sphingolipids, and Cholesterol. Learn about their common amphipathic nature and differences in chemical structure, abundance in membrane leaflets, cellular compartments, and functions.

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