Cells and Genetics Vocabulary

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10 Questions

What is the primary function of mitochondria in a cell?

To generate energy for the cell

What is the term for the process of breeding organisms with specific traits to produce offspring with those traits?

Selective breeding

What is the term for a gene that is always expressed when an organism has one copy of the allele?

Dominant

What is the term for the process of change in the frequency of alleles in a population over time?

Evolution

What is the term for the remains or imprints of ancient organisms?

Fossil

Which organelle is responsible for generating energy for the cell through the process of cellular respiration?

Mitochondria

What is the purpose of a Punnett Square in genetics?

To determine the probability of certain traits in offspring

What is the term for the variation in the characteristics of individuals within a population?

Genetic variation

What is the process by which an organism becomes better suited to its environment?

Adaptation

What is the term for the scientific principle that explains how living organisms have changed over time?

Evolution

Study Notes

Cell Biology and Genetics

  • Cell theory: fundamental concept in biology that explains the structure, function, and behavior of cells
  • Virus: a small infectious agent that replicates inside the cells of an organism
  • Gene: a unit of heredity that carries information from one generation to the next
  • Chromosome: a thread-like structure made up of DNA and proteins that carries genetic information
  • Allele: a different form of a gene that occupies the same position on a chromosome
  • Mutation: a change in the DNA sequence of an organism
  • Mutagen: an agent that increases the frequency of mutations
  • Selective breeding: the process of choosing which individuals to breed based on their traits
  • Genetic engineering: the manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology
  • GMO: a genetically modified organism
  • Gene therapy: the use of genes to treat or prevent diseases

Cell Structure and Function

  • Plant cells: have cell walls, chloroplasts, and a large central vacuole
  • Animal cells: have no cell walls, no chloroplasts, and a smaller central vacuole
  • Organelles:
    • DNA: contains genetic information
    • Mitochondria: generates energy for the cell
    • Ribosome: produces proteins
    • Chloroplast: responsible for photosynthesis in plant cells
    • Cell membrane: regulates what enters and leaves the cell
    • Cell wall: provides support and protection in plant cells

Reproduction and Heredity

  • Sexual reproduction: involves two parents, resulting in offspring that are genetically unique
  • Asexual reproduction: involves one parent, resulting in offspring that are genetically identical
  • Punnett Square: a diagram used to predict the probability of certain traits in offspring
  • Dominant and recessive traits: dominant traits are always expressed, while recessive traits are only expressed when paired with another recessive trait

Evolution and Adaptations

  • Scientific theory: a well-substantiated explanation for a set of phenomena
  • Scientific law: a statement that describes a pattern or relationship in nature
  • Scientific evidence: observations and data that support a scientific theory or law
  • Relative dating: determines the age of a fossil or rock layer relative to others
  • Absolute dating: determines the exact age of a fossil or rock layer
  • Fossil: the remains or imprints of ancient organisms
  • Fossil record: the collection of fossils found in rock layers
  • Biodiversity: the variety of different species, ecosystems, and genes
  • Extinct: a species that has died out
  • Mass extinction: the sudden disappearance of a large number of species
  • Trait: a characteristic or feature of an organism
  • Population: a group of organisms that interbreed and share a common gene pool
  • Genetic variation: the differences in genes and traits among individuals in a population
  • Natural selection: the process by which organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce
  • Evolution: the change in the genetic makeup of a population over time
  • Adaptation: a trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce in its environment

Cell Biology and Genetics

  • Cell theory: fundamental concept in biology that explains the structure, function, and behavior of cells
  • Virus: a small infectious agent that replicates inside the cells of an organism
  • Gene: a unit of heredity that carries information from one generation to the next
  • Chromosome: a thread-like structure made up of DNA and proteins that carries genetic information
  • Allele: a different form of a gene that occupies the same position on a chromosome
  • Mutation: a change in the DNA sequence of an organism
  • Mutagen: an agent that increases the frequency of mutations
  • Selective breeding: the process of choosing which individuals to breed based on their traits
  • Genetic engineering: the manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology
  • GMO: a genetically modified organism
  • Gene therapy: the use of genes to treat or prevent diseases

Cell Structure and Function

  • Plant cells: have cell walls, chloroplasts, and a large central vacuole
  • Animal cells: have no cell walls, no chloroplasts, and a smaller central vacuole
  • Organelles:
    • DNA: contains genetic information
    • Mitochondria: generates energy for the cell
    • Ribosome: produces proteins
    • Chloroplast: responsible for photosynthesis in plant cells
    • Cell membrane: regulates what enters and leaves the cell
    • Cell wall: provides support and protection in plant cells

Reproduction and Heredity

  • Sexual reproduction: involves two parents, resulting in offspring that are genetically unique
  • Asexual reproduction: involves one parent, resulting in offspring that are genetically identical
  • Punnett Square: a diagram used to predict the probability of certain traits in offspring
  • Dominant and recessive traits: dominant traits are always expressed, while recessive traits are only expressed when paired with another recessive trait

Evolution and Adaptations

  • Scientific theory: a well-substantiated explanation for a set of phenomena
  • Scientific law: a statement that describes a pattern or relationship in nature
  • Scientific evidence: observations and data that support a scientific theory or law
  • Relative dating: determines the age of a fossil or rock layer relative to others
  • Absolute dating: determines the exact age of a fossil or rock layer
  • Fossil: the remains or imprints of ancient organisms
  • Fossil record: the collection of fossils found in rock layers
  • Biodiversity: the variety of different species, ecosystems, and genes
  • Extinct: a species that has died out
  • Mass extinction: the sudden disappearance of a large number of species
  • Trait: a characteristic or feature of an organism
  • Population: a group of organisms that interbreed and share a common gene pool
  • Genetic variation: the differences in genes and traits among individuals in a population
  • Natural selection: the process by which organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce
  • Evolution: the change in the genetic makeup of a population over time
  • Adaptation: a trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce in its environment

Test your knowledge of cells and genetics concepts, including cell theory, genetics terminology, and cellular organelles. Covers topics like sexual and asexual reproduction, Punnett Squares, and genetic engineering.

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