Cell Organelles: Golgi Apparatus and Mitochondria

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What is the maximum number of divisions adult cells can undergo, as defined by the Hayflick Limit?

10-30 times

What happens to cells that escape the tight control of cell division regulation?

They grow uncontrollably and become cancerous tumors.

What is the difference in chromosome number between daughter cells produced by mitosis and meiosis?

Mitosis: 2, Meiosis: 4

In which type of cells does mitosis primarily occur?

Somatic cells

What is the main purpose of meiosis in organisms?

Sexual reproduction

Define the terms 'diploid cells' and 'haploid cells'.

Diploid cells have two copies of each chromosome (2n), while haploid cells have one copy of each chromosome (1n).

What is the process called when a diploid cell divides and creates 2 haploid cells?


During which stage of Meiosis I do chromosomes pair up and recombination can occur?

Prophase I

What happens during Anaphase I of Meiosis I?

Spindle fibres pull one of each pair of chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell

Which phase of Meiosis II involves chromosomes lining up down the middle of the cell?

Metaphase II

What happens during Anaphase II of Meiosis II?

The arms (sister chromatids) of each chromosome move to each end of the cell

At the end of Meiosis, how many haploid cells have been formed?


Explain the difference between mitosis and meiosis in terms of the number of cells produced.

Mitosis produces 2 new cells, while meiosis produces 4 new cells.

What are the four stages of mitosis?

The four stages of mitosis are Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.

Describe the events that occur during Anaphase in mitosis.

During Anaphase, the centromeres divide and the chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell.

What happens during Telophase in mitosis?

During Telophase, chromosomes begin to uncoil, spindle fibers break down, and a new nuclear envelope begins to form.

Explain the significance of Cytokinesis in the cell cycle.

Cytokinesis is the final stage in the cell cycle where the cytoplasm divides along a cleavage furrow, forming two daughter cells.

What is the main difference between G1 and G2 stages of interphase?

G1 is the interval of cell growth before DNA replication, while G2 is the interval following DNA replication where the cell prepares to divide.

What happens during the S stage of interphase?

During the S stage, all DNA in the nucleus is copied, resulting in two identical strands of each chromosome.

Describe the events that occur during Prophase in mitosis.

During Prophase, DNA condenses and winds up tightly, the nuclear envelope breaks down, and centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell.

What is the purpose of Metaphase in mitosis?

In Metaphase, chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell and spindle fibers attach to the centromeres.

Why is the cell cycle important for the growth and maintenance of multicellular organisms?

The cell cycle is vital for growth, tissue repair, and maintenance in multicellular organisms by allowing cells to divide, grow, and replace damaged cells.

Learn about the functions and structures of Golgi Apparatus, which produces lysosomes for cell digestion, and Mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell responsible for energy production. Explore how these organelles contribute to cellular processes.

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