Cell Biology: Cell Membrane and Cytoplasm

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10 Questions

What is the primary function of the cell membrane?

To regulate what enters and leaves the cell

What is the main component of the cytoplasm?

Water

What is the primary function of mitochondria?

To generate energy for the cell

What is the function of the nuclear envelope?

To protect the nucleus from the cytoplasm

What is the function of lysosomes?

To break down and recycle cellular waste and foreign substances

What is the structure of the mitochondrial inner membrane?

Folded into cristae to increase surface area

What is the composition of the cell membrane?

Phospholipid bilayer and cholesterol

What is the site of many metabolic reactions in the cell?

Cytoplasm

What is the function of cholesterol in the cell membrane?

To regulate fluidity and permeability

What is the pH of the lysosomal internal environment?

4.5-5.5

Study Notes

Cell Membrane

  • Also known as plasma membrane
  • Thin, semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cell
  • Composed of:
    • Phospholipid bilayer (phospholipids with hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails)
    • Proteins (integral and peripheral)
    • Cholesterol (regulates fluidity and permeability)
  • Functions:
    • Regulates what enters and leaves the cell
    • Maintains cell shape and structure
    • Provides mechanical support and protection

Cytoplasm

  • Gel-like substance inside the cell membrane
  • Composed of:
    • Water (about 70%)
    • Salts
    • Sugars
    • Amino acids
    • Organelles (e.g. mitochondria, lysosomes, ribosomes)
  • Functions:
    • Provides mechanical support and shape to the cell
    • Site of many metabolic reactions (e.g. glycolysis, protein synthesis)
    • Helps to move organelles and molecules within the cell

Mitochondria

  • Often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell
  • Found in the cytoplasm
  • Functions:
    • Generate energy for the cell through cellular respiration
    • Convert glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
    • Regulate cell growth and division
  • Structure:
    • Outer membrane
    • Inner membrane (folded into cristae to increase surface area)
    • Matrix (where citric acid cycle and fatty acid oxidation occur)

Nucleus

  • Control center of the cell
  • Found in the cytoplasm
  • Functions:
    • Stores genetic information (DNA)
    • Regulates gene expression
    • Coordinates cell growth and division
  • Structure:
    • Nuclear envelope (double membrane with pores)
    • Nucleoplasm (gel-like substance inside the nuclear envelope)
    • Chromatin (DNA and proteins)

Lysosomes

  • Membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm
  • Functions:
    • Contain digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases)
    • Break down and recycle cellular waste and foreign substances
    • Help to defend against pathogens and foreign substances
  • Structure:
    • Single membrane
    • Acidic internal environment (pH 4.5-5.5)

Cell Membrane

  • Composed of a phospholipid bilayer, proteins, and cholesterol
  • Phospholipids have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails
  • Cholesterol regulates fluidity and permeability
  • Regulates what enters and leaves the cell
  • Maintains cell shape and structure
  • Provides mechanical support and protection

Cytoplasm

  • Gel-like substance inside the cell membrane
  • Composed of 70% water, salts, sugars, amino acids, and organelles
  • Organelles include mitochondria, lysosomes, and ribosomes
  • Provides mechanical support and shape to the cell
  • Site of many metabolic reactions, such as glycolysis and protein synthesis
  • Helps to move organelles and molecules within the cell

Mitochondria

  • Often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell
  • Found in the cytoplasm
  • Generate energy for the cell through cellular respiration
  • Convert glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
  • Regulate cell growth and division
  • Have an outer membrane, inner membrane (folded into cristae), and matrix
  • Citric acid cycle and fatty acid oxidation occur in the matrix

Nucleus

  • Control center of the cell
  • Found in the cytoplasm
  • Stores genetic information (DNA)
  • Regulates gene expression
  • Coordinates cell growth and division
  • Has a nuclear envelope with pores, nucleoplasm, and chromatin (DNA and proteins)

Lysosomes

  • Membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm
  • Contain digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases)
  • Break down and recycle cellular waste and foreign substances
  • Help to defend against pathogens and foreign substances
  • Have a single membrane and an acidic internal environment (pH 4.5-5.5)

Learn about the cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, and cytoplasm, a gel-like substance inside the cell. Understand their composition, functions, and importance in cellular processes.

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