Cardiac Physiology Summary Quiz

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29 Questions

What is the composition of the intima, the innermost layer of arteries and veins?

A single layer of endothelial cells

What determines the permeability of capillaries?

Tightness of the endothelial cell junctions

What gives resistance to the flow of blood through arteries and generates pressure?

Tonic contraction of smooth muscle

Why are veins sometimes called 'capacitance vessels'?

They have the capacity to hold more blood than arteries

What does compliance refer to in the context of blood vessels?

The distensibility of the vessel

Which vessels are known as 'capacitance vessels'?

Veins

What is the composition of the media, or middle layer, of arteries and veins?

Smooth muscle and elastin

What is the primary time when blood flows through coronary arteries?

During diastole when the heart muscle relaxes

How does more diastolic time affect blood flow to the myocardium?

Increases blood flow to the myocardium

What effect does more diastolic time have on ventricular filling?

Increases ventricular filling

How does increased diastolic time affect preload and stroke volume (SV)?

Increases preload and enables better SV

In an athlete, what effect does increased diastolic time have on maximal heart rate (HR) for performance?

Creates more room for HR to eventually increase to maximal levels

How much can Person A, an Olympic athlete, increase their cardiac output (CO) due to only the increase in HR?

By ~230%

How much can Person B, not an athlete, increase their CO due to only the increase in HR?

By ~160%

What is the resting HR of Person A, the Olympic athlete?

60

What is the resting HR of Person B, who is not an athlete?

75

What influences stroke volume?

Preload, contractility, and afterload

In which part of a vessel does laminar flow occur?

Center

What can turbulent flow lead to?

Thrombus formation

What primarily alters blood flow in the vascular system?

Resistance through vasodilation and vasoconstriction

What is cardiac output influenced by?

Heart rate and stroke volume

What is resistance determined by?

Viscosity, length, and vessel radius

What determines stroke volume (SV) through the Frank-Starling law?

End-diastolic volume (EDV)

What is the primary factor affecting contractility?

Ca++ availability

What determines afterload?

Arterial resistance

What primarily regulates blood pressure through vasoconstriction?

Sympathetic nervous system

What regulates blood pressure through negative feedback reflex?

Baroreceptors in the carotid sinus

What strengthens the heart muscle, increasing contractility and stroke volume even at rest?

Athletic training

What can lead to a lower resting heart rate and increased stroke volume at normal blood pressure?

Elevated contractility

Study Notes

Cardiac Physiology Summary

  • End-diastolic volume (EDV) determines stroke volume (SV) through the Frank-Starling law
  • The force of heart contraction is proportional to initial sarcomere length (preload) and ventricle muscle stretch
  • SV can be adjusted based on venous return, but overstretching limits effective contractions
  • Factors affecting SV include venous return, contractility, and afterload
  • Contractility is independent of preload and can be affected by heart damage, hypoxia, and Ca++ availability
  • Afterload is determined by arterial resistance and affects heart workload and oxygen demand
  • Heart workload increases with factors that increase heart rate, preload, contractility, or afterload
  • Heart rate is primarily determined by the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  • The sympathetic nervous system regulates blood pressure through vasoconstriction, while the parasympathetic system has little effect on vascular tone
  • Baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch regulate blood pressure through negative feedback reflex
  • Athletic training strengthens the heart muscle, increasing contractility and stroke volume even at rest
  • Elevated contractility can lead to a lower resting heart rate and increased stroke volume at normal blood pressure

Test your knowledge of cardiac physiology with this summary quiz. Explore concepts such as stroke volume, Frank-Starling law, contractility, afterload, and the influence of the autonomic nervous system on heart rate and blood pressure regulation.

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