Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory Quiz
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Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory Quiz

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Questions and Answers

Which of the following is NOT a component of Levinson's Model of Social Competence?

Enactment of response

What is the approximate number of phonemes distinctive to English?

36-42

At what age do infants typically start learning 5-6 new words a day?

18-24 months

What is the approximate adult vocabulary size in words?

<p>30,000-40,000</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a component of language development?

<p>Phonology</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Kohlberg's theory of moral development, which stage is characterized by an ethics of peer opinion?

<p>Interpersonal normative morality</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Gilligan's theory of moral development, which stage is characterized by an integration of needs of self, others, and what's right?

<p>Integrated care</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which category of theories of biological aging focuses on processes that take place in the breakdown of cells, tissues, and organs?

<p>Cellular or variable rate theories</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which theory of successful aging emphasizes active participation in social roles?

<p>Activity theory</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which reflex involves the baby's head turning to the side of the cheek being stroked and the mouth opening ready to feed?

<p>Rooting reflex</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, which of the following is an example of the mesosystem?

<p>Neighborhood play area</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Vygotsky's Socio-Cultural Theory, what is the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)?

<p>Activities a child can almost perform with guidance</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the Goodness of Fit Model, success at maintaining high levels of caregiver-infant synchrony is related to the goodness of fit between their:

<p>Characteristics of babies</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is an example of the exosystem according to Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory?

<p>Workplace environments</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Vygotsky's Socio-Cultural Theory, what is the main function of scaffolding?

<p>To provide support and structure</p> Signup and view all the answers

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory includes which of the following systems?

<p>Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, what does the term 'social clock' refer to?

<p>Cultural and generational differences in expectations</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the Goodness of Fit Model, what are the two factors that need to have a good fit between the caregiver and infant?

<p>Characteristics of babies and needs of babies</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Vygotsky's Socio-Cultural Theory, what does the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) represent?

<p>Activities a child can almost perform with guidance</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, which of the following is an example of the macrosystem?

<p>Customs and laws of society</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of play involves children playing alone with different toys/objects and with no awareness of or involvement with other children?

<p>Solitary play</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of play involves the child watching others play without actually entering into the activities, but being clearly involved with what is happening and usually within speaking distance of the participants?

<p>Onlooker play</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of play involves two or more children playing side by side in close proximity with an awareness of each other, often with the same toys or similar activity, but they do not share, talk, or interact?

<p>Parallel play</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of play involves children engaging in a common activity and talking about it with each other, but not assigning tasks or roles to particular individuals and not being very clear about their goals?

<p>Associative play</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of play involves children consciously forming into a group to make something, attain a goal, or dramatize a situation, with one or two members organizing and directing the activity, and children assuming different roles and responsibilities?

<p>Cooperative play</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of play is characterized by children playing alone with different toys/objects and having no awareness of or involvement with other children?

<p>Solitary play</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of play involves children watching others play without actually entering into the activities, but being clearly involved with what is happening and usually within speaking distance of the participants?

<p>Onlooker play</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of play involves two or more children playing side by side in close proximity with an awareness of each other, often with the same toys or similar activity, but they do not share, talk, or interact?

<p>Parallel play</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of play involves children engaging in a common activity and talking about it with each other, but not assigning tasks or roles to particular individuals and not being very clear about their goals?

<p>Associative play</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of play involves children consciously forming into a group to make something, attain a goal, or dramatize a situation, with one or two members organizing and directing the activity, and children assuming different roles and responsibilities?

<p>Cooperative play</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a personality dimension?

<p>Gender typing</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process of acquiring gender-consistent behaviors called?

<p>Gender typing</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others called?

<p>Theory of mind</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills called?

<p>Intelligence</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the pragmatic approach to ambiguous problems called, where formal operations are used as a problem-solving tool?

<p>Post-formal thinking</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of intelligence involves learned processes and remains relatively stable with age?

<p>Crystallized intelligence</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the systematic stereotyping and discrimination against people because they are old called?

<p>Ageism</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does successful aging refer to?

<p>Maintaining psychological adjustment and well-being</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does bereavement involve?

<p>Acceptance and understanding of death</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the ability to integrate new and old knowledge called?

<p>Fluid intelligence</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Grusec and Lytton's typology, which type of play involves manipulation of objects in order to construct something?

<p>Constructive play</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which parenting style is characterized by high demandingness and high responsiveness, and is associated with positive outcomes such as higher self-esteem, social competence, and academic achievement?

<p>Authoritative parenting</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term used to describe the patterns of attachment behavior in infants?

<p>Attachment</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which pattern of attachment behavior is characterized by seeking mother's contact/comfort after being left alone with a stranger, cooperating better with parents, and adapting better to preschool changes?

<p>Secure attachment</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which parenting style is characterized by high demandingness and low responsiveness, and may lead to obedience but with lower self-esteem and social competence?

<p>Authoritarian parenting</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which parenting style is characterized by low demandingness and high responsiveness, and may lead to impulsivity and lower academic achievement?

<p>Permissive parenting</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which parenting style is characterized by low demandingness and low responsiveness, and is associated with negative outcomes such as behavioral problems and low self-esteem?

<p>Uninvolved parenting</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is attachment characterized by?

<p>Reciprocal affection and a shared desire to maintain physical and emotional closeness</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which pattern of attachment behavior is characterized by being intensely upset when with a stranger, actively seeking contact with mother but refusing comfort, and responding with anger to parents' attempts to help/teach them?

<p>Anxious Resistant attachment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is pretend play characterized by?

<p>Substituting make-believe, imaginary, and dramatic situations for real ones</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Language Development

  • Approximate number of phonemes distinctive to English: 44
  • Infants typically start learning 5-6 new words a day at around 18 months old
  • Approximate adult vocabulary size: 20,000-50,000 words

Moral Development

  • Kohlberg's theory: Stage 4 is characterized by an ethics of peer opinion
  • Gilligan's theory: Stage 3 is characterized by an integration of needs of self, others, and what's right

Biological Aging

  • Category of theories: Wear and tear theory focuses on processes that take place in the breakdown of cells, tissues, and organs
  • Successful aging theory: Emphasizes active participation in social roles

Infant Reflexes

  • Rooting reflex: Baby's head turns to the side of the cheek being stroked and the mouth opens ready to feed

Ecological Systems Theory

  • Mesosystem: Example is the interaction between home and school
  • Exosystem: Example is the community center's influence on the parent's behavior
  • Macrosystem: Example is the cultural values that influence the community center

Vygotsky's Socio-Cultural Theory

  • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): The range of knowledge and understanding that an individual can achieve with guidance
  • Scaffolding: The main function is to provide guidance and support to help individuals reach their full potential

Goodness of Fit Model

  • Success at maintaining high levels of caregiver-infant synchrony is related to the goodness of fit between their temperaments
  • Two factors that need to have a good fit: Caregiver's and infant's temperaments

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory

  • Includes five systems: Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem

Social Clock

  • Refers to the social norms and expectations surrounding age-related events and milestones

Play Types

  • Solitary play: Playing alone with different toys/objects and no awareness of or involvement with other children
  • Onlooker behavior: Watching others play without entering into the activities
  • Parallel play: Playing side by side with an awareness of each other, often with the same toys or similar activity
  • Associative play: Engaging in a common activity and talking about it with each other
  • Cooperative play: Consciously forming into a group to make something, attain a goal, or dramatize a situation

Personality Dimensions

  • The excluded option is not a personality dimension: Grit

Intelligence

  • Pragmatic approach to ambiguous problems: Formal operations are used as a problem-solving tool
  • Crystallized intelligence: Involves learned processes and remains relatively stable with age

Aging

  • Ageism: Systematic stereotyping and discrimination against people because they are old
  • Successful aging: Maintaining physical and cognitive function, and engaging in social and productive activities
  • Bereavement: Involves coping with the loss of a loved one

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