British Administration in India

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What was a consequence of the British introduction of Western-style education in India?

The decline of traditional Indian educational systems

What was the British governance style's approach to maintain control in India?

Leveraging religious, caste, and regional differences

What was the result of the British 'divide and rule' policy in India?

The fostering of divisions that had long-lasting impacts

Who were the leaders of the nationalist movements in India?

Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru

What was the outcome of the nationalist movements in India?

India gained independence in 1947

What was the impact of the British introduction of Western-style education on the Indian middle class?

It facilitated the emergence of a professional middle class

What was the effect of the British 'divide and rule' policy on Indian society?

It contributed to communal tensions that persisted even after India's independence

What was the nature of the resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru?

Nonviolent and civil

What was the issue with the Board of Control and the Court of Directors of the company?

There was a lack of clarity in their responsibilities.

What was the result of the Charter Act of 1833?

Monopoly trade was restricted to tea and opium.

Who was the founder of the Civil Service in India?

Lord Cornwallis

Why were Indians not allowed to hold certain posts in the Civil Service?

The salary was more than 500 euros.

What was the strength of the Indian sepoy recruits?

2,00,000

Who was the Superintendent of Police in Calcutta?

A British officer

What was the issue with the police system?

Corruption and harassment of commoners.

Who was eligible for higher posts in the police system?

British citizens

What was a potential consequence of the introduction of Western-style education in India?

The emergence of a professional middle class

What was established in 1793 in Bengal?

Customs and traditions as laws

What was the result of the British 'divide and rule' policy in India?

The exacerbation of existing divisions within Indian society

What was the outcome of discrimination against Indians in responsible offices?

Indians protested for independence

What was the significance of the Regulating Act of 1773?

It created a supreme court in Calcutta

What was the role of the Board of Control under Pitt's India Act of 1784?

To control the East India Company's government in India

What is the purpose of the Law commission?

To establish rule of law

What was the impact of the British governance style on Indians?

Indians were given subordinate positions

What was the reason for the failure of the Regulating Act of 1773?

It did not define the powers of the Governor General and the council

What is the deadline for submitting the Extended Research activity?

10.07.2023

What was the significance of Pitt's India Act of 1784?

It gave the British government more control over the East India Company's activities in India

What was the potential consequence of the cultural shift resulting from the introduction of Western-style education in India?

Cultural alienation and the undermining of traditional Indian educational systems

What was the role of the Governor General under the Regulating Act of 1773?

To supervise the governors of Bombay and Madras

What was the significance of the British administration in India from 1858 to 1947?

It brought about profound changes in India's political, economic, and social structures

What was the primary purpose of the development of infrastructure by the British?

To facilitate the extraction and transportation of raw materials

What was the impact of the land revenue systems introduced by the British on Indian farmers?

They placed heavy tax burdens on farmers, leading to widespread poverty and frequent famines

What was the significance of the three Presidencies mentioned in the text?

They were territories that were under the direct control of the British, including Bengal, Madras, and Bombay

What was the primary focus of the British colonial government in India?

To consolidate British control and exploit India's resources for the benefit of the British Empire

Study Notes

British Administration in India (1858-1947)

  • Characterized by centralization of power with the Viceroy and British officials holding significant authority
  • Implemented reforms and policies to consolidate British control and exploit India's resources for the benefit of the British Empire

Economic Impact

  • Introduced new land revenue systems: Permanent Settlement and Ryotwari system
    • Fundamentally altered traditional agrarian practices
    • Placed heavy tax burdens on farmers, leading to widespread poverty and frequent famines
  • Developed infrastructure: railways, telegraphs, and ports
    • Primarily to facilitate the extraction and transportation of raw materials

Social Impact

  • Introduced Western-style education
    • Created a new class of English-educated Indians
    • Led to cultural alienation and the undermining of traditional Indian educational systems
  • Fostered divisions within Indian society through the "divide and rule" policy
    • Leveraged religious, caste, and regional differences to maintain control
    • Contributed to communal tensions that persisted even after India's independence

Nationalist Movements

  • Led to the rise of nationalist movements and resistance against colonial rule
  • Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru mobilized the masses through campaigns of nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience
  • Ultimately led to India's independence in 1947

Failure of Dual Government in Bengal

  • Failure due to lack of definition of powers between the Governor General and the council
  • No clear boundaries between the responsibilities of the Board of Control and the Court of Directors of the East India Company

Acts Enacted by the British Parliament

  • Regulating Act 1773
  • Pitt's India Act 1784
  • Charter Act 1813
  • Charter Act 1833

Pillars of British Administration

1. Civil Services

  • Founded by Lord Cornwallis
  • Banned presents and bribes
  • Arranged good salaries
  • Competitive exams introduced in 1853

2. Army

  • Indian sepoys
  • 2,00,000 Indian soldier recruits
  • Loyal and disciplined
  • Trained in the latest arms

3. Police

  • Established under Lord Cornwallis
  • Maintained law and order
  • Superintendent of Police - Calcutta
  • Cities - Kotwals
  • Sub-divisions of districts - Darogas
  • Village policemen - Chowkidars
  • Corruption and harassment of commoners
  • British were eligible for higher posts

4. Judiciary

  • Earlier laws were based on custom and tradition
  • Bengal Regulation 1793 - customs and traditions put down as laws
  • Civil courts and criminal courts were set up
  • Law commission was appointed
  • Rule of law was established

Discrimination Against Indians

  • Absence of Indians in responsible offices
  • Given only subordinate positions
  • To ensure growth of British ideas and practices
  • Injustice and economic exploitation
  • Sparked an urge to protest for independence

Quiz on the British administration in India, understanding its pillars and the discrimination against Indians. Learn about the significance of the systems brought into India by the British.

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