Bioreactor Classification Quiz

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Explain the difference between solid state and submerged bioreactor systems in terms of water content and examples of microorganisms used in each.

Solid state bioreactor systems have a water content of 40-80% and are mostly used for mold fermentation on agriculture products and food like rice. Submerged bioreactor systems have a water content greater than 95% and are used for microorganisms like bacteria and yeast.

What are the criteria for classifying bioreactors according to the type and form of biocatalyst and the mode of operation?

Bioreactors can be classified based on the type and form of biocatalyst, such as free cells in submerged cultures or carried bound/immobilized cells/enzymes, and based on the mode of operation, which can be batch, continuous, or fed-batch.

Why is the bioreactor often described as the heart of a bioprocess?

The bioreactor is described as the heart of a bioprocess because it is the container in which substrate is converted into the product by the action of biocatalyst, and it is where the actual conversion occurs.

What is the function of a bioreactor in a bioprocess?

A bioreactor is a container in which substrate is converted into product by the action of biocatalyst, making it the heart of a bioprocess.

How can bioreactors be classified according to the type and form of biocatalyst?

Bioreactors can be classified based on the type and form of biocatalyst, such as free cells in submerged cultures, or carried bound or immobilized cells/enzymes.

What are the different modes of operation for bioreactors?

Bioreactors can operate in batch mode, continuous mode, or fed-batch mode.

What are the two types of agitators used in bioreactors and how are they classified based on flow?

Agitators in bioreactors can be classified as having radial flow or axial flow, with axial flow allowing for 3 times more water flow than radial flow.

How is foam typically controlled in bioreactors and what issues can excessive foam formation lead to?

Foam in bioreactors is controlled with antifoaming agents based on si, and excessive foam formation can lead to blocked air exit filters and pressure build up in the reactor.

Study Notes

Bioreactor Systems

  • Solid state bioreactors have minimal water content, whereas submerged bioreactors have a high water content, allowing for the growth of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, and yeast.
  • Examples of microorganisms used in solid state bioreactors include Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Rhizopus, while submerged bioreactors often use microorganisms like E. coli, Saccharomyces, and Bacillus.

Classification of Bioreactors

  • Bioreactors can be classified according to the type and form of biocatalyst, such as free or immobilized enzymes, whole cells, or organelles.
  • Mode of operation is another classification criterion, which includes batch, fed-batch, continuous, and perfusion.

Bioreactor in Bioprocess

  • The bioreactor is often referred to as the heart of a bioprocess because it is the vessel where the biocatalyst performs the desired biochemical reaction.
  • The primary function of a bioreactor is to provide a controlled environment for the biocatalyst to convert substrates into products.

Classification of Bioreactors by Biocatalyst

  • Bioreactors can be classified into three types based on the biocatalyst: enzymatic bioreactors, microbial bioreactors, and cell culture bioreactors.

Modes of Operation

  • Bioreactors can operate in different modes, including batch, fed-batch, continuous, and perfusion, each with its own advantages and disadvantages.

Agitators in Bioreactors

  • There are two types of agitators used in bioreactors: mechanical agitators (e.g., impellers, turbines) and pneumatic agitators (e.g., air-lift, bubble column).
  • Agitators are classified based on flow, either laminar or turbulent, which affects the mixing and oxygen transfer in the bioreactor.

Foam Control in Bioreactors

  • Foam is typically controlled in bioreactors using antifoaming agents, skimmers, or mechanical foam breakers.
  • Excessive foam formation can lead to issues such as reduced oxygen transfer, clogged filters, and increased risk of contamination.

Test your knowledge of bioreactors and their classification in this quiz. Learn about the different types of bioreactors, such as solid state and submerged systems, and understand their role in bioprocesses.

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