Biology Quiz: Phylum Porifera (Sponges)

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28 Questions

What is the approximate number of living species of cnidarians?

10,000

Which of the following cnidarians is typically found in freshwater?

Hydras

What is the characteristic symmetry of cnidarians?

Radial symmetry

What is the level of organization of cnidarians?

Tissue level

What is the characteristic body shape of a polyp?

Cylindrical body with tentacles

What is the function of the single opening in a cnidarian's body?

Serves as both mouth and anus

What is the characteristic feature of a medusa's body shape?

Motile, bell-shaped body

What is the characteristic internal structure of cnidarians?

Sac with a central digestive compartment

What is the main method of obtaining food for sponges?

Filter feeding

What is the function of the osculum in sponges?

To release water out of the sponge

Which type of cells in the sponge's body wall are responsible for drawing water in?

Choanocytes

What is the gelatinous material between the pinacoderm and the choanocytes?

Mesohyl

Which subkingdom includes animals with a body composed of cells differentiated into tissues and organs?

Metazoa

What is the characteristic of Diploblastica?

Two layers, with a non-cellular layer between ect and endoderm

Which phylum includes the 'simplest' of the complex animals?

Cnidaria

What is the function of the archaeocytes in sponges?

To phagocytize food particles and undergo differentiation

What is the layer of cells between the ectoderm and endoderm in diploblastic organisms?

Mesoglea

What is the type of symmetry shown by coelenterates?

Radial symmetry

What is the function of nematocysts in coelenterates?

Capturing and paralyzing prey

What is the primary source of food for most coelenterates?

Other animals that live symbiotically within them

What is the mode of respiration and excretion in coelenterates?

Simple diffusion

What is the morphological form of coelenterates that contains an exoskeleton and an endoskeleton?

Polyp

What type of reproduction is seen in polyps?

Asexual reproduction

Which class has only the hydroid form during their life cycle?

Actinozoa

What is unique about the body composition of jellyfish?

They are mostly made of water

What is the genus of the species Hydra viridis?

Hydra

What is a characteristic of Hydra?

They are colonial and solitary

Which of the following has both polyp and medusa forms?

All of the above

Study Notes

Subkingdom: Parazoa

  • Phylum: Porifera
  • Example: Sponge
  • Characteristics:
  • Mostly marine, but some freshwater inhabitants
  • Sessile; permanently attached to substrate
  • Filter feeding
  • Body wall composed of:
    • Pinacoderm (outer layer of flattened cells)
    • Choanocytes (inner lining of flagellated cells)
    • Mesohyl (gelatinous material between pinacoderm and choanocytes)
  • Three types of body structure: Ascon, Sycon, and Leucon

Kingdom: Animalia

Subkingdom: Metazoa

  • Characteristics:
  • Body composed of cells differentiated into tissues and organs
  • Digestive cavity lined with specialized cells
  • Divided into two groups: Diploblastica and Triploblastica

Diploblastica

  • Characteristics:
  • Two layers: ectoderm and endoderm
  • Non-cellular layer (mesogloea) between ectoderm and endoderm
  • Coelom absent

Triploblastica

  • Characteristics:
  • Three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
  • Cellular layer (mesoderm) between ectoderm and endoderm
  • Coelom present

Phylum: Cnidaria (Coelenterata)

  • Characteristics:
  • Radial symmetry
  • Tissue level of organization
  • Over 10,000 living species
  • Both marine and freshwater habitats
  • Two general body forms: Polyp and Medusa
  • Body plan: Sac with a central digestive compartment
  • Single opening serving as both mouth and anus
  • Ring of tentacles on oral surface

General Characters

  • Multicellular organisms with tissue grade of organization
  • Diploblastic, with two layers of cells: ectoderm and endoderm
  • Single opening in the body for food intake and waste expulsion
  • Radial symmetry
  • Digestion occurs in the body cavity (coelenteron)
  • Can live in marine or freshwater habitats
  • Can be solitary or colonial
  • Each individual is a zooid
  • Two morphological forms: Polyps and Medusa
  • Most are carnivorous, with some exceptions

Phylum: Coelenterata (Cnidaria)

Class: Hydrozoa

  • Characteristics:
  • Show asexual hydroid and sexual medusoid forms during their life cycle
  • Examples: Hydra, Obelia

Class: Actinozoa (Anthozoa)

  • Characteristics:
  • Only have the hydroid form during their life cycle
  • Example: Alcyonium

Genus: Hydra

Species: viridis

  • Example: Hydra viridis

Body Structure of Hydra

  • Not specified

Characteristics of Moon Jelly

  • Not specified

Obelia Hydroid

  • Characteristics:
  • Prominent medusa and polyp forms

Jellyfish

  • Characteristics:
  • No eyes, nose, brain, or heart
  • Body is mostly made of water and is soft
  • No bones or spine
  • Invertebrate animals

Test your knowledge of phylum Porifera, including their characteristics, habitat, and morphology. Learn about sponges and their unique features.

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